The Renaissance and Reformation

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Transcript The Renaissance and Reformation

The Renaissance and
What was the Renaissance?
Renaissance = Rebirth
1350-1550 in European history was a
rebirth in art and learning
Subjects the Greeks and Romans
Why Italy?
Center of the Roman Empire
Wealthy cities in the 1300s, they could
afford to pay painters, sculptors, architects
Italy was divided into independently run citystates which competed with each other
This competition brought out the
Renaissance Italy
What were the Famous City-States
of Italy?
• Florence- most famous, produced many
artists. The Medici family was Florence’s
• Venice- wealthiest. Sailors and
shipbuilders. Used canals instead of roads.
• Genoa
• Milan
• Rome
The Rise of Italian City-States
No ruler could unite Italy
City-states fought many wars over territory
They became wealthy through trade
because of Italy’s location
Were linked to the “east” during the middle
ages (Marco Polo), gained many new items
Each was ruled by one powerful man
Niccolo Machiavelli – wrote how a ruler
should maintain power – The Prince 1513
Machiavelli believed rulers
should do whatever it takes
to maintain power
“It is better to be feared than
New Ideas & Art
Section 2
Renaissance Humanism
Humanism – way of understanding the world
that believed that the individual and human
society were important
Francesco Petrarch- studied Roman writers
Dante Alighieri – poet, wrote the “The Divine
Chaucer – wrote “The Canterbury Tales”
Johannes Gutenberg- develop the printing
Renaissance Men
Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo
Raphael Sanzio
-Scientist & Artist
-The Last Supper
-Mona Lisa
-The School of
-Painted, sculpted
and designed
-Sistine Chapel
-The David
Da Vinci
The Last Supper
William Shakespeare
Renaissance spreads north to England
Writer of tragedies, comedies, and historical
Introduced over 1,000 words to the English
Hamlet, Macbeth, A Midsummer Night’s
Dream, and Romeo & Juliet among others!
Read “A Midsummer’s Night Dream”
On pages 627-632 and answer questions
1-5 on page 632. Questions will be
The Reformation
Section 3
Calls for Church Reform
Reformation – many wanted to
“reform” the Catholic church
Many believed the church taxed
people too heavily and spent lavishly
Indulgences – sold by the church to
reduce a punishment for sin
Martin Luther
1517 – challenged the Catholic
Church and led a movement known as
Protestantism (to Protest)
Believed that only faith = salvation
Ninety Five Theses – arguments
against indulgences (Wittenberg)
Excommunicated by Pope
Created his own denomination
1. Faith in Jesus, not good works brings
2. The Bible is the final source of truth
about god, not priests.
3. Church is all believers, not just the
John Calvin
Calvinism – agreed w/ Luther but added some
new ideas
God decides everything in advance, including
who will go to heaven and hell: Predestination
To prove they were “chosen” people lived
good lives and worked hard
Kings couldn’t run the church
Became the Puritans
Believed in theocracy-church led government
Catholics &
Section 4
Counter Reformation
1500s & 1600s Catholic Church set out to
defeat Protestantism = Counter –
Bloody wars were fought until 1648
Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent to
fix the Catholic Church
Jesuits – Society of Jesus, pope’s agents to
spread Catholicism
Catholic kings sent missionaries to convert
Pope Paul III
More Counter Reformation
The Thirty Years’ War-worst religious war of the
The Spanish Inquisition – Catholic Court used to
combat heresy
Protestants to the North of Europe, Catholics to the South
of Europe
Executed 2,000 Spaniards
King Henry IV of France a Catholic king allowed
French Protestants (Huguenots) to worship
Henry IV
Of Spain
Henry VIII King of England
Ruled 1509 – 1547
6 wives (2 divorces, 2 beheaded) because he
wanted a son
Pope refused his request for annulment,
makes like the marriage never happened
1534 The Act of Supremacy declared the king
head of the Church of England not the pope
The Anglican Church
The Six Wives of Henry VIII
Back and Forth in England
Henry’s daughter Mary becomes queen in
1553 and restores Catholicism
Arrested Protestants and had 300 burned at
the stake, “Bloody Mary”
After 5 years Mary died, her half-sister takes
the throne--Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth I – restored the Anglican
Church and became a great leader
Bloody Mary
Elizabeth I