AP World History Period 5 - Fort Thomas Independent Schools

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Transcript AP World History Period 5 - Fort Thomas Independent Schools

The Long 19th century (1750-1900)
AP World History Period 5
By: Greyson Pendery, Anna Smith, Mariah Barnes, and Drew Bavard
Demographic Changes
Urbanization- Many people move from rural communities to cities for jobs
Industrialization- Led to specialization of jobs in Urban areas and new
technology like the steam engine and the cotton gin.
Decolonization- Mother countries withdrew from their colonial holdings and
became independent
New Imperialism- European nations try to create monopolies over African
Nations and economies to obtain lots of wealth
Political, Economic, Social, and Cultural
Political- political democracies took place around the world especially in the America’s after
the American Revolution
Economic- major changes with production and transportation of products and new
technologies in this period
Social- New freedoms for arose from revolutions and most places abolished slavery in this
Cultural- World becomes more connected culturally like the adoption of Western dress in
countries like Japan
Global Reactions To Western Dominance
Legal Reforms● Self strengthening movement (China)
● Tanizant Reforms
Social Reforms● Abolished serfdom ( Russia)
Resistance Movements● Sepoy Mutiny (North independent from
● Opium Wars
Rebellions● Taiping Rebellion
● Boxer Rebellion
Racist Policies● White Australia Policy
● Chinese exclusion act (USA)
● European nations pit ethnic groups
against each other and led to genocide
in period 6
Nationalist Tendencies● American Revolution
● German unification (1871)
● Civil War (North vs. South)
● Italian unification (failed)
Causes of Global Revolutions
USA: Their goal was to gain complete independence from
Britain, not have to pay high taxes to them, not have to get
involved in their conflicts (French & Indian War), gain more
freedoms, and play a role in their government. Was a big
Success and led to many other colonies to claim independence
from their mother countries.
France: The goal was to overthrow the king, establish a
republic, and fix the financial and political systems. Failed
because the revolution led to the dictatorship of Napoleon in
Haiti: Slaves were tired of hard work with poor living conditions
and no representation in the government. The slave rebellion
was successful in ending slavery and French control in 1803.
Causes of Global Revolutions (Part 2)
Mexico: The goal was to free Mexico from Spain because of the
social tensions between Europeans and indigenous people. This
revolution was successful in gaining independence but failed to
get rid of social tensions.
Central and South America: All became independent by
China: Goal was to get rid of European influences and
overthrow the Qing Dynasty (Boxer and Taiping Rebellions), and
to get rid of the dynastic cycle and create a democratic republic.
This revolution didn’t succeed until 1911.
Global Revolutions
U.S.A.- Upper-middle class revolt against high
taxes and are tired of being brought into British
French- The third estate of the government
branched off and formed their own constitution
because of the social and political inequality and
the people having very little representation
Haiti-Slaves revolt against French rule due to
bad treatment and living conditions. The
economy wasn’t very good and there was a
major taxation problem
Global Revolutions (Part 2)
Mexico- Priest Hidalgo rallies lower classes
against Spanish rule, racial discrimination, and
uneven distribution of land.
Central/South America- Creoles, Mestizos, and
Mulattoes, and Natives all fight against their
mother countries for independence but each
ethnic group wants to rule.
China- The Boxer Rebellion was a fight against
European rule, but The Taiping Rebellion was
against the Qing Dynasty’s rule and felt they
weren’t doing enough against European
economic control and knew they weren’t even
Causes of Revolutions Worldwide
The American Revolution happened due to colonialism and sparked
many revolutions around the world.
Declaration of Independence was written to end Colonialism in the
American Colonies of Britain to become Independent and form the
United States of America.
Enlightenment ideas are used in many constitutions of countries that
broke off of Western European powers.
Many Democracies formed especially in the Western Hemisphere
after European rule so all men have rights and a say in their
Enlightenment Thinkers
Locke: Encouraged the natural rights of Life, Liberty, and
Voltaire: Stated all men should be allowed to Freedom of
Speech and Religion.
Rousso: Claimed Freedom of Press.
Montesqui:Wants all governments to have three equal
branches of power.
Changes in Global Economy Due To Industrial Revolution
Created new economic markets and increase in global trade
Worldwide demands were met by an increase in production
Raw materials become important but obtain lesser value
New Technologies and Transportation were developed to meet
economic needs
People became more connected through technological advances
How Industry Transformed the
● Thriving Middle Class rose around the world
● Both World and Local Economies Grew
● More cities developed around the world
● Introduction of Medicines and Vaccines led to higher life
expectancy and lower infant mortality rate
Forces That Caused Equality
● Revolutions-Haitian Revolution
● Enlightenment Ideas- Liberty, Freedom Of Speech,
Press, Religion
● Declarations- Declaration of the Rights of Man
Forces of Inequality
● Imperialism- In Asia and Africa
● Genocides in Africa
White European Supremacy over other ethnicities- White
Australian Act
● Social Darwinism
Western Intervention
● Berlin Conference- European powers set rules for carving
Africa into Nations
● Building strong trade routes for raw materials
● Colonies were established
● Democracies established most in Latin America due to
Western intervention, and elections were held
Industrialization in Western Europe vs. Meiji Japan
Japan: Foreign pressure from
Matthew Perry (US Naval
Commander) to open up to
trade and industrialize.
Europe: Competition for
resources and power
promoted Industrialization.
Japan: Wanted to become
self sufficient and not have to
rely on trade or be influenced
by other nations.
Europe: Mass production of
products, easier modes of
transportation, and to
become wealthy.
Reactions of Western Influence
India: Mughal Empire took little action against
European Influence.
China: Attempted to limit foreigners and trade.
Ottoman Empire: Borrowed money from Britain,
wasn’t able to pay it back, so British took control of
the Empire.
Japan: Resisted until forced to into an Economic
Friendship with U.S by Matthew Perry.
Women’s Roles in Society
Women lacked many legal rights and ran into many unjust
circumstances if they tried to move into the man’s world of
Most women stay home and tended to the house and children.
Even some women in England had no legal identity.
Working women were paid very little compared to men and
treated poorly which still can be seen today.
Major Regions
Asia: Rebelling against European dominance of Markets in
China. Japan industrializes to become dominant in Asia.
Africa: Is Imperialized, controlled, and economically
dominated by European Nations.
Americas: Was used for resources, and most places gained
independence from European countries by the 1820’s.
Europe:Economic and Military dominance in the world with
many Imperialized holdings in Africa.
Periodization Review
1775-1783: American Revolution
1789-1799: French Revolution
1791-1804: Haitian Revolution
1799-1815: Napoleonic Wars
1839-1850’s: Opium Wars
1850-1864: Taiping Rebellion
1853-1856: Crimean War
1857: Sepoy Rebellion
1900: Boxer Rebellion
1898: Spanish-American War
1899-1902: Boer War