World War I: The Fighting Ends

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Transcript World War I: The Fighting Ends

World War I:
The Fighting Ends
US History Honors
The German War Machine
• Germany faced troubles in 1918
• A home front revolution forced the Kaiser into exile
• Shortage of soldiers (Iron Youth was gone); munity in Navy
• US entry proved to be too much for them (fresh troops & morale)
Germany Surrenders
• November 1918, Germany asked for an armistice
• November 11, 1918 – fighting stopped (Armistice Day)
• The Allied Powers had won the Great War
• Allied blockade of German ports continued until the treaty was signed
Peace Conference at Versailles
Peace Conference - Versailles
• Peace Conference – Versailles, France (January 1919)
• Major Participants (The Big Four)
Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain: sought $$$
Premier Georges Clemenceau of France: sought revenge
Vittorio Orlando of Italy: sought land promised to them earlier
President Wilson of the US: sought Peace without Victory
• What resulted was dictated peace – Germany was not allowed
inside, but hoped the peace would be based on Wilson’s plan
Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
• The Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919) product of compromise
• New independent nations were formed in Europe
• Empires were destroyed and ethnic groups were united
• A League of Nations was formed to maintain peace and prevent
future world wars (Wilson’s 14th Point)
• Germany was blamed & punished for WWI (war guilt clause)
• Asked to pay huge reparations ($33 billion)
• Forced to give up large amounts of land
• Massive disarmament left them with only a defensive army
Treaty of Versailles Rejected in
the United States
• The Treaty was REJECTED at home, despite Wilson’s efforts
Many feared the “League” was just another alliance
The US never joined; rejected by the US Senate in 1920
Most Americans desired isolationism
The US made a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921
Result of the Treaty of Versailles
• The Treaty of Versailles planted the seeds of German
bitterness after WWI that allowed for Adolf Hitler to rise to
power and begin World War II