Wilson Fights for Peace

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Transcript Wilson Fights for Peace

Wilson Fights for Peace
Chapter 11
Section 4
Wilson’s 14 Points
1. No secret treaties
2. Freedom of the seas
3. Tariffs lowered or abolished
4. Decrease in armaments
5. Colonial policies should take into
account the interests of the colonized
Points 6-13
• 6-13: Deal with specific boundary
Point 14
• 14. Created the League of Nations
Allies Reject the Points
• France: wanted to weaken Germany to
prevent another attack and keep their
military strong to defend themselves
• Great Britain: Prime Minister won election
with slogan “Make Germany Pay”
• Italy: Wanted control of Austrian territory
A Strange Peace Conference
• No Central Powers invited
• Russia and other allies not invited
• Big Four
– Wilson: U.S.
– Clemenceau: France
– Lloyd George: Great Britain
– Orlando: Italy
The Treaty of Versailles
• Signed June 28, 1919
• Established nine new nations
• Gave France and Great Britain mandates
in the Middle East
• Demilitarized Germany
• Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
• $33 Billion in reparations
• War guilt clause
Weaknesses of the Treaty
• 1. Humiliated Germany
– Germany couldn’t pay reparations
• 2. Russians felt ignored
– Lost more territory than Germany
• 3. Colonial issues dealt with poorly
– Germany stripped of colonies it needed to pay
– Ignored calls for independence from
Southeast Asia
Opposition to the Treaty
• Hoover and others felt it was too harsh
• Some saw it as a sell out to imperialism
• Ethnic groups upset over new boundaries
The League of Nations
• Many felt it would draw U.S. into further war
• Senate wanted to weaken it, but Wilson would not
back down
• Senate refused to ratify Treaty of Versailles
• U.S. signed a separate peace in 1921, never
joined the League
Pershing’s Fears
• Most Germans did not know
they had been defeated
• Germans shocked by
Armistice and angered by
the Treaty
• Believed war would have to
be fought again
Rise of Hitler
• German Economy destroyed
• Looking for scapegoats
• Hitler blamed Jews and socialists in the
Weimar Republic
• Rose to power in 1933