New Animal Nutrition

download report

Transcript New Animal Nutrition

Animal Nutrition
REASONS WHY ANIMALS NEED
FEED
MAINTENANCE
GROWTH
REPRODUCTION
LACTATION
WORKING
OTHER PRODUCTS AND USES
WAYS ANIMALS USE NUTRIENTS
TO MAINTAIN THEMSELVES
Used to keep the body warm
Replace old cells
Run the internal organs and for body
movement
Six Essential Nutrients
1. Water
4. Protein
2. Carbohydrates
5. Minerals
3. Fats
6. Vitamins
Water (H2O)
Controls body temperature.
Enables living plants and animals to hold
their shape.
Involves the transport of nutrients at the
cell level through osmosis and diffusion.
Helps digest feeds.
Carries waste-products resulting from body
functions.
Major part of all body fluids.
Carbohydrates (C6H12O6)
Furnishes energy for:
A. body functions
B. growth and fattening
C. reproduction
The largest part of an animal’s food supply
(usually the roughage in the diet).
Includes sugars, starchs, and cellulose.
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fats
Furnishes a concentrated source of energy. (2.25
times as much energy as C6H12O.)
Forms cholesterol, steroids, and other body
compounds.
Found in every cell in the body.
Skin and hair conditions are affected when fat is
absent from the diet.
Provides: Energy reserves
Protection for vital organs
Insulation for the body
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Proteins
Needed for growth and repair of the
body.
Helps form the greater part of:
A. muscles and internal organs.
B. skin, hair, wool, and feathers.
C. hoofs and horns.
Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen.
Minerals
Potassium, phosphorous, and calcium are
necessary for healthy bones.
Salt (NaCl) is important in most body
functions (i.e. appearance, growth,
appetite).
Iron is required for healthy blood and skin.
Most other minerals are essential, but are
required in smaller amounts.
Vitamins
Needed in minute amounts.
Essential for life and health.
Catalyst for body processes.
Promotes growth and reproduction.
Contributes to the general health of
the animal.
TWO GENERAL CLASSES OF
FEEDSTUFFS
Concentrates:
Feeds that are low in fiber & high in
total digestible
nutrients.
Oats:
When an animal only
consumes the seed.
Roughages
Feeds that are high in fiber & low in
total digestible
nutrients.
Oat Hay:
When an animal
consumes the seeds,
leaves, and stalk.
DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT
A digestible nutrient is the part of a
feedstuff that can be digested, or
broken down.
Fiber in roughage is not easily
digested.
Ruminants and horses are efficient
users of roughage.
TERMS
RATION: The total amount of feed an
animal gets in a 24 hour period.
BALANCED RATION: A ration that
provides all of the nutrients needed by
the animal in the right amount and
proportion.
DIET: Type and amount of feed and
water an animal eats
THREE TYPES OF ROUGHAGE
FOR ANIMALS
PASTURE- Land where grasses and
other plants grow for animals to graze
HAY- Made of the leaves and stems
of plants that have been cut and dried
for feed
SILAGE- Made from cut green plants
by chopping them into small pieces
and placing the “chop” in a silo
EXAMPLES OF GRAIN
CONCENTRATES
Grains are high in TDN but do not
provide a balanced ration.
Examples include corn, oats, wheat
and grain sorghum.
Corn is the most widely used grain.
SOURCES OF PROTEIN
SUPPLEMENTS
Protein supplements are high in TDN
and high in protein.
Three types:
Animal - meat scraps and tankage,
blood meal, fish meal, and skim milk
Plant- soybean oil meal, cotton seed
meal and various grain by-products.
Synthetic- Urea, molasses, rice hulls,
and citrus pulp treated with ammonia.
FEED ADDITIVES
Placed in feed while it is being
manufactured to preserve it and
enhance growth of the animals.
Medications
Wormers
Marketing enhancement
Antioxidants
IMPLANTS AND INJECTIONS
Implants involve placing solid
materials under the skin.
Injections involve using hypodermic
needles and syringes to get a
substance into the body system of an
animal.
Examples are BST to increase milk
production in dairy cows and fish may
be injected to encourage spawning.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN
SELECTING FEED FOR ANIMALS
NUTRIENT CONTENT
PALATABILITY
FREE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
VARIETY
BULKINESS
COST
FEED STORAGE
THREE FORMS IN WHICH
ROUGHAGE IS FED
BALES
LOOSE CHOP
PELLETS AND WAFERS
WAYS CONCENTRATES ARE
MADE INTO FORMS OF FEED
CRACKING AND ROLLING
GRINDING
EXTRUDING
WAYS SUPPLEMENTS ARE
PREPARED
BLOCKS - Salt or mineral block
LIQUIDS - Molasses
MIXES - Salt, protein sources and
other materials
Measurements of Feed
As-fed - contains amount of water it
usually does when fed to livestock
Dry Matter - feed left after water is
removed
CWT = hundred weight
Calculating Dry Matter
Grind and weigh (as fed)
dry in oven
weigh sample again
divide dry weight by as fed weight and
multiply by 100%
Example of calculating dry matter %
4.1 lb original weight of feed and
container - 0.1 weight of container =
4.0
3.5 lb. Weight of dry feed and
container - 0.1 weight of container =
3.4
3.4/4.0 = 0.85 x 100% = 85% dry
matter