Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

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Transcript Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

The French Revolution:
part Deux
(a more radical sequel)
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
• The Revolution continued after 1791, with the radical
Jacobins demanding a new constitution and a republic, even
if it meant using violent means to get it.
• September Massacres:
citizens were angry due
to battle losses abroad
• Parisians had stormed
the Tuileries (where the
king was held) in
August & slaughtered
his guards
• attacks on prisons
holding nobles&
the Tuileries
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
• Radicals took control
of the Legislative
Assembly, which was
re-named the
National Convention.
Their goal was to
completely wipe out
the old order.
the National Convention
voted to destroy monarchy
executed Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
seized nobles’ lands & abolished titles
wrote the Constitution of 1795
– declared France a republic
• Discontent threatened the NC’s power
– Vendee rebellions
– sans-culottes riots in Paris
Committee of Public Safety
• The Committee of Public Safety was created within
the National Convention. It had almost absolute
power to do what was necessary to save the revolution.
Committee of Public Safety
• Established a levee on masse which required all
citizens to contribute to the war effort.
• French armies invaded the Netherlands & Italy,
& crushed peasant revolts at home.
The Reign of Terror
• Maximilien Robespierre
was the leader of the
Committee of Public
• The Reign of Terror:
– used against anyone who
spoke against revolution
– 40,000 people killed—15%
clergy/nobles, 15% middle
class, & the rest were peasants
or sans-culottes involved in
– many executed by guillotine
the Directory (1795-1799)
• The National Convention turned on Robespierre
& he was executed.
Discontent with the Directory
• France was at war with Austria & Great Britain.
• Famine & starvation continued
• Many emigres returned, which led to a revival of
“Royalist” feeling.
• Catholics resented actions taken by the new
constitution against the Church.
• In 1797 supporters of constitutional monarchy
became the majority in the legislature. Chaos
• Napoleon Bonaparte
helped to overthrow the
Directory & set up a 3man Consulate, with him
as the 1st Consul.
• Crowned himself Emperor
in 1804.
• French showed support for
him in plebiscites—
elections in which they
would vote yes or no for his
political advancement.
Napoleon’s Reforms
strengthened central government
fixed economy/created new industry
established public school system
made peace with Catholic Church
encouraged emigres to return
made top jobs “open to all talent”
Napoleonic Code —new code of law influenced
by Enlightenment ideas
– religious toleration
– all citizens considered equal before the law
Napoleon’s Empire
• Used his army to
annex areas in the
Belgium, Italy &
• Nepotism—
installed family
members on the
thrones of other
European countries
(i.e. Spain)
Joseph Bonaparte
the Battle of Trafalgar
• Tried to invade England at the Battle of
Trafalgar, but failed due to superior British
naval power.
the Continental System
• Since Napoleon could not defeat Britain in
battle, he decided to wage economic
• The Continental System set up a blockade
against Britain—essentially no European
country would trade with them. (aka
• These trade restrictions led to a scarcity of
goods & a rise in prices.
Problems with Russia
• Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, which led to disaster
due to the cold climate & the Russians’ use of a ‘scorched
earth’ policy, in which they burned resources as they
•This defeat
encouraged Russia,
Britain, Austria, &
Prussia, who formed
the Quadruple
Alliance &
defeated Napoleon
at the Battle of
Nations @ Leipzig.
Goodbye—Hello—Goodbye, Napoleon
• Napoleon
(stepped down
from his
position) & was
exiled to Elba.
• Louis XVIII was
restored to the
throne of
the Battle of Waterloo
• Economic depression &
a fear of a return to the
Old Regime revived
support for Napoleon.
• Napoleon escaped from
Elba & returned to
France in 1815, reigning
for 100 days.
• He was then crushed
again by the Quadruple
Alliance at the Battle of
the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
• goal: to restore order & stability to Europe
• led by Prince Metternich of Austria
• Achievements:
– restored monarchy in France & the idea of
legitimacy –supporting the monarchs who had
hereditary claims to European thrones
– to prevent a revival of French military power, the
map of Europe was re-drawn & France was
surrounded by strong nations
– the Quadruple Alliance agreed to continue acting
together to maintain the balance of power.