Wilson Fights for Peace

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Transcript Wilson Fights for Peace

Wilson Fights for Peace
Chapter 11
Section 4
Wilson’s 14 Points
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1. No secret treaties
2. Freedom of the seas
3. Tariffs lowered or abolished
4. Decrease in armaments
5. Colonial policies should take into
account the interests of the colonized
Points 6-13
• 6-13: Deal with specific boundary
changes
Point 14
• 14. Created the League of Nations
Allies Reject the Points
• France: wanted to weaken Germany to
prevent another attack and keep their
military strong to defend themselves
• Great Britain: Prime Minister won election
with slogan “Make Germany Pay”
• Italy: Wanted control of Austrian territory
A Strange Peace Conference
• No Central Powers invited
• Russia and other allies not invited
• Big Four
– Wilson: U.S.
– Clemenceau: France
– Lloyd George: Great Britain
– Orlando: Italy
The Treaty of Versailles
• Signed June 28, 1919
• Established nine new nations
• Gave France and Great Britain mandates
in the Middle East
• Demilitarized Germany
• Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
• $33 Billion in reparations
• War guilt clause
Weaknesses of the Treaty
• 1. Humiliated Germany
– Germany couldn’t pay reparations
• 2. Russians felt ignored
– Lost more territory than Germany
• 3. Colonial issues dealt with poorly
– Germany stripped of colonies it needed to pay
reparations
– Ignored calls for independence from
Southeast Asia
Opposition to the Treaty
• Hoover and others felt it was too harsh
• Some saw it as a sell out to imperialism
• Ethnic groups upset over new boundaries
The League of Nations
• Many felt it would draw U.S. into further war
• Senate wanted to weaken it, but Wilson would not
back down
• Senate refused to ratify Treaty of Versailles
• U.S. signed a separate peace in 1921, never
joined the League
Pershing’s Fears
• Most Germans did not know
they had been defeated
• Germans shocked by
Armistice and angered by
the Treaty
• Believed war would have to
be fought again
Rise of Hitler
• German Economy destroyed
• Looking for scapegoats
• Hitler blamed Jews and socialists in the
Weimar Republic
• Rose to power in 1933