End of War PowerPoint

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End of the War
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The Fourteen Points for Peace
The Treaty of Versailles
A Return to “Normalcy”
Wilson’s 14 Points Group 1
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Abolish “Secret” Treaties
Freedom of the Seas
Removal of Economic Barriers between
nations
Reduction of Armaments
Impartial Adjustment of colonial claims
Next 8 dealt with boundary
changes. (Group 2)
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6. The German Army is to be removed
from Russia. Russia should be left to
develop her own political set-up.
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7. Belgium should be independent like
before the war.
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8. France should be fully liberated and
allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine.
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9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in
Italy. Italy’s borders are to “along clearly
recognizable lines of nationality.”
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10. Self-determination should be
allowed for all those living in AustriaHungary.
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11. Self-determination and guarantees
of independence should be allowed for
the Balkan states.
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12. The Turkish people should be
governed by the Turkish government.
Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire
should govern themselves.
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13. An independent Poland should be
created which should have access to
the sea
Wilson’s
th
14
Point (Group 3)
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14. A general association of nations must be
formed under specific covenants for the
purpose of affording mutual guarantees of
political independence and territorial integrity
to great and small states alike.
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Summary of what this means: A League of
Nations should be set up to guarantee the
political and territorial independence of all
states.
Wilson at Versailles
Problems with the Treaty of
Versailles
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Isolationists were afraid of entangling
alliances
Right Wingers thought the Germans got
off to easy
Liberals claimed the peace was too
harsh
German-Americans thought Germany
got screwed
Irish-Americans thought the British got
too much
Who was excluded from the
negotiations:
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Russia
Germany
What are reparations?
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Reparations are payments or other
compensations made to a group of
people who have been wronged or
injured.
League of Nations
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A world organization established in
1920 to promote international
cooperation and peace. It was first
proposed in 1918 by President
Woodrow Wilson, although the United
States never joined the League.
Essentially powerless, it was officially
dissolved in 1946.
War Guilt Clause
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Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles
(1919) is commonly known as the "guilt
clause" or the "war guilt clause", in which
Germany was forced to take complete
responsibility for starting World War I. the
United kingdom and France played the
primary role in the article, while the United
States played a lesser role, mostly due to
president Woodrow Wilson's principle of
"peace without victory"
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The bill was tallied in April 1921, when
the commission determined that
damages caused by Germany
amounted to $33 billion or 133 billion
gold marks. Payments were to be made
in cash or by such in-kind commodities
as steel and coal. Representatives of
the German government were
extremely reluctant to shoulder this
crushing debt and did so only under the
full weight of international pressure.
Country
Total Mobilized
Forces
Killed
Wounded
Prisoners and
Missing
Total
Casualties
Casualties as % of
Forces
ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS
12,000,000
1,700,000
4,950,000
2,500,000
9,150,000
76.3
British Empire
8,904,467
908,371
2,090,212
191,652
3,190,235
35.8
France
8,410,000
1,357,800
4,266,000
537,000
6,160,800
73.3
Italy
5,615,000
650,000
947,000
600,000
2,197,000
39.1
United States
4,355,000
116,516
204,002
4,500
323,018
7.1
11,000,000
1,773,700
4,216,058
1,152,800
7,142,558
64.9
Austria-Hungary
7,800,000
1,200,000
3,620,000
2,200,000
7,020,000
90.0
Turkey
2,850,000
325,000
400,000
250,000
975,000
34.2
Russia
Germany
Wilson’s Response
I can predict with absolute certainty
that within another generation there
will be another world war if the nations
of the world do not concert the method
by which to prevent it.
U.S. Refusal to
Sign Treaty of Versailles
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Supported by Senator Henry Cabot
Lodge
Fearful of drawing the U.S. into another
war
Isolationists refused to support the
treaty
Warren G. Harding and a
“Return to Normalcy”