Chapter 14 Lesson 4 Day 2
Chapter 14 Lesson 4 Day 2
Why did the cartoonist portray
the U.S. Senate in such a
The U.S. Senate voted against
ratifying the Treaty of Versailles.
The cartoonist believed that the
Senate's action was inhumane and
Wilson's proposals for just and lasting peace: Woodrow
Wilson favored open peace agreements rather than secret
diplomacy to achieve a lasting peace. He also favored selfdetermination. Wilson maintained liberty could be assured
only by creating democratic governments and a "general
association of nations" that would prevent small states from
becoming the victim of larger states.
Deliberations complicated by national interests: Great
Britain and France both wanted to make Germany pay for the
war. France also desired security against future German
Peace settlement achieved through
compromise: Because of the Allies' competing goals,
compromise was needed to reach an agreement. Wilson's
proposal for a League of Nations was accepted, and in return
he compromised on territorial agreements. The French
accepted a defensive alliance with Great Britain and the
United States in exchange for a separate Rhineland.
Why was Wilson in favor of self
Many of the problems in eastern
European countries were due to the
presence of many ethnic groups with
different goals in the same country. Selfdetermination would give each group its
own independent nation under its own
rule. This would eliminate ethnic conflicts
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
the Treaty of Versailles punished
Germany, established new nations,
and created a League of Nations to
solve international problems
Provisions of Treaty of Versailles with Germany
Requirement of Germany to pay monetary
reparations: Of the five treaties that ended the
war, the Treaty of Versailles with Germany was
the most important. The War Guilt Clause called
for Germany and Austria to pay for all damages
incurred by Allied countries as a result of the war.
Reduction of German territory and military
power: Germany had to reduce its military
forces, return Alsace and Lorraine to France, cede
land to a new Polish state, and demilitarize its
land along the Rhine River. Germans considered
the terms of the Treaty of Versailles to be overly
harsh, but their government accepted the treaty.
Which clause in the Treaty of
Versailles particularly angered
Article 231, the War Guilt Clause,
which declared Germany (and
Austria) responsible for starting
World War I.
Do you think it was reasonable for
Wilson to expect the European
nations to share his views and
approach to peace?
Wilson's expectations may have been
unreasonable since the United States
entered the war late and no battles were
fought on United States soil.
New nation-states in Eastern Europe: Under the principle of selfdetermination, many new nation-states were created in eastern
Europe, although various compromises prevented them from being
created along strict ethnic lines. Almost every European country had
an ethnic minority, which would lead to friction later.
Dissolution of Ottoman Empire: The Ottoman Empire was
dissolved. Although the Allies had promised to recognize the
independence of Arab states after the war, some were taken over by
France and Britain as mandates. The mandates included Syria, Iraq,
A painful realization: The war shattered the notion of a rational
society. Millions of deaths and the destruction of huge areas of land
led people to question the whole idea of human progress.
Increase in power of governments: Because the war effort led to
complete mobilization of countries' resources and people, the role of
government in the lives of citizens increased. People learned that
freedom of speech could be limited in the name of national security.
How do you think the idea of
progress prevalent during the late
nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries was affected by World War
People who had been involved in the
struggle needed to regain some sense of
normality, so progress had to wait until
they got back to where they had been
before the war.
World War I officially ended on September 28, 2010,
when Germany paid the last of the reparations imposed
at the end of the war. The final payment of about 95
million dollars ended the debt that was the Germany's
price for World War I and laid the foundations for World
War II. The initial war damages in 1919 were set at
226 billion Reichsmarks, later reduced to 132 billion. In
1919, the principal representative of the British
treasury protested the high figure, warning that
Germany would not be able to "formulate correct
policy" if it could not finance itself. His warning proved
true in the early 1930s when the Nazis came to power
after the German republic sank into debt. During his
reign, Adolf Hitler refused to pay anything toward
Should Germany have been held
responsible for the cost of the war?
Why or why not?
It should have been, although perhaps
through means other than monetary
payments, or that conditions should have
been established so that Germany could
have repaid the debt in a reasonable