Age of Exploration

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Transcript Age of Exploration

Age Of Exploration and
Chapter 13
Miss Mayer
13.1 Overview
• 15th Century Europeans began to explore
the world.
• Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic and
England reached new economic heights
through world trade.
• Conquistadors – Spanish conquerors of the
• Colony – A settlement of people living in a new
territory, linked with the parent country by trade
and direct government control.
• Mercantilism – A set of principles that dominated
economic thought in the 17th century.
• Balance of Trade – Difference in value between
what a nation imports and what it exports over
Exploration and Expansion 15001800
• Europeans had been interested in Asia for
a long time.
– Interest peaked during the Renaissance
because of the want for exotic items.
• 3 Motives
– Gold
– Glory
• First person to reach a new land
• Higher Social Status
– God
• Missionaries
• Spread Religion – More Followers = More Power
New Maritime Technologies
Better Maps
Hartman Astrolabe
Mariner’s Compass
• Sail East
• Lead the way in exploration-explore Africa in
• Name West Africa the “Gold Coast”
• Vasco da Gama sails around “cape of good
hope” to India
• 1498-Arrives in Calicut, gets spices, makes a profit of several
thousand percent
• 1507 Portuguese fleet of warships defeats a
fleet of Indian and Turkish ships to gain control
of strategic ports
• Sail West
• Establish an overseas empire (Portuguese
only set up trading posts).
• Spanish were there to inhabit and occupy
the land as opposed to profit only.
• Believed the world was round and not flat.
• Did not know how big oceans were, how big
continents were, or that North and South
America existed.
• Columbus underestimates the size of the earth.
• Convinces Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain to
fund a westward voyage to Asia.
– Columbus is of Italian ethnicity but sails under the
Spanish Flag
1492 – Columbus Sails…
• Explores the Island of Hispaniola and the
Cuban coast.
• 4 voyages total exploring the area-calls it
the Indies until the day he dies even
though everyone knew it was not by then.
• Columbus finds modern day Caribbean
• Assumes the natives are Indian based on
the color of their skin.
A Map of the Known World,
pre- 1492
1492 – Columbus Sails…
• The Arawak – Tribe from the Caribbean
• Crowd around Columbus’s ship in
amazement when he arrives.
• Columbus immediately detains some
natives and tries to get them to tell him
where the gold is—he promised the king
and queen of Spain riches.
Line of Demarcation
• Line down Atlantic Ocean dividing
undiscovered territories between Portugal
and Spain.
– Territories East-Portugal, Territories westSpain.
– Explorers now race to discover new
– This is why South America speaks both
Spanish and Portuguese.
Line of Demarcation
Amerigo Vespucci
• Letters he wrote on his travels to South
America made him famous, continent
named after him.
– America and Amerigo sound very similar…
– Writings became historical evidence of what
travel and sea life was like.
John Cabot
• Explored the New England coastline of the
Americas for England.
Spanish Empire
• Conquistadors—swiftly defeated natives
– Cortez overthrows Aztecs in three years
• Francisco Defeats the Inca
• Portugal gets Brazil—other side of line of
• Natives were put to work in gold and silver
mines—labor, starvation, and disease
– Native population on Hispaniola goes from
250,000 to 500 in about 50 years
Economic Impact
• Europeans go crazy for gold/riches in
– The supply is low but the demand is very
– Allows for successful explorers to make a
huge profit.
• Completely changes trade—new network
between Europe and Americas.
– Faster and shorter route.
Ferdinand Magellan
• Helped the Spanish establish themselves
in the Philippine Islands.
• Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522
became the first expedition to sail from the
Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean
– Then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan
– The passage being made via the Strait of
Magellan and the first to cross the Pacific.
– Also completed the first circumnavigation of
the Earth
Ferdinand Magellan
English – Dutch - French
• 1500’s and 1600’s these countries join the
• Dutch are 1st to inhabit the Northeast of North
• By 1700 English take control of the area and rename the colony of New Netherland, New York.
• French sought wealth in the fur trade.
• English sought colonization and land expansion.
• Dutch sought riches.
New Colonial Rivals
1. Portugal lacked the numbers
and wealth to dominate trade in
the Indian Ocean.
2. Spain in Asia  consolidated its
holdings in the Philippines.
3. First English expedition to the
Indies in 1591.
Surat in NW India in 1608.
4. Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization
Impact of European Expansion
1. Native populations ravaged by
2. Influx of gold, and especially
silver, into Europe created an
inflationary economic climate.
[“Price Revolution”]
3. New products introduced across
the continents [“Columbian
4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
The Columbian exchange
• Africa In An Age of Transition
– European expansion affected Africa with the
dramatic increase of the slave trade.
– Traditional political systems and cultures
continued to exist in most of Africa.
• Plantation – Large agricultural estates
typically worked by slaves.
• Triangular Trade – Trade route that
connected Europe, Africa and the
• Middle Passage – Middle portion of the
Triangular Trade route, majority of slaves
were transported in this route.
• Slavery existed in many countries such as;
– England
– Southwest Asia
– Africa
• Since countries were expanding during
exploration, slavery increased
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
The Slave Trade
1. Existed in Africa before the coming
of the Europeans.
2. Portuguese replaced European slaves
with Africans.
Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
First boatload of African slaves
brought by the Spanish in 1518.
275,000 enslaved Africans exported
to other countries.
3. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million
Africans shipped to the Americas.
Slave Ship
“Middle Passage”
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
African Captives
Thrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships!
Sources of Slaves
• Local African rulers began to worry about
the Europeans taking slaves from their
communities. Population would drop
• King Alfonso of Congo worked with
European nations to sell slaves – he
received a large profit.
Effects of the Slave Trade
• Benin in West Africa was eliminated
because of the slave trade.
• The entire tribe was destroyed and traded
around the Triangular Trade Route.
13.3 Southeast Asia in the Era
of the Spice Trade
• The Portuguese occupied the Moluccas in
search of spices but were pushed out by
the Dutch.
• The arrival of the Europeans greatly
impacted the Malay Peninsula.
• Mainland States – Part of the continent, as
distinguished from peninsulas or offshore
• Bureaucracy – A body of non-elective
government officials.
Emerging Mainland States
• Conflicts did erupt between the emerging states.
• Burma and Thailand clashed.
• The Vietnamese began their “March to
the South.”
• By the end of the fifteenth century, they subdued
the rival state of Champa.
• They then took control of the Mekong delta from
the Khmer, a monarchy that virtually
disappeared by 1800.
Emerging Mainland States
• The major impact of Islam came in the
fifteenth century with the rise of the new
sultanate at Melaka.
• Melaka was powerful because of its
strategic location and the spice trade’s
rapid growth.
• Melaka soon became the leading power in
the region.
The Arrival of Europeans
• In 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka
and soon occupied the Moluccas, or Spice
• They were the chief source of the spices
that attracted the Portuguese to the Indian
The Arrival of Europeans
• The European success in creating trading
empires in the East and conquering the
Americas owed much to the use of gunpowder
and cannons.
• For example, the heavy cannon of the
Portuguese ships made defeating the lighter
Muslim fleets easy.
• The Ottoman and Safavid Empires also used
gunpowder effectively, causing historians to
label them and others “gunpowder empires.”
Religious and Political Systems
• Islam and Christianity made converts in
the non-mainland states and the
• Javanese kingship was rooted in Indian
political traditions.
• Like Buddhist kings, Javanese rulers were
believed to have a sacred quality,
maintaining the balance between the
material and spiritual worlds
Religious and Political Systems
• The Vietnamese emperor ruled by
Confucian principles.
• He was seen as a mortal appointed by
Heaven to rule because of his talent
and virtue.
• He also was an intermediary between
Heaven and Earth.