Jefferson-Monroe - United States History

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Transcript Jefferson-Monroe - United States History

Democratic Republican Era
Presidents Jefferson, Madison and
Monroe in the life of the Early
Essential Questions
• Review: Adam and Jefferson administration
• 1. Is Jefferson more federalist than the federalists?
Evaluate based on party beliefs and actual policies
• 2. Evaluate the cause, course and outcome of the War of
1812, America’s Second War of Independence.
• 3. What are the major issues and resolutions America
experienced during the Era of Good Feelings. Are the
outcomes a recipe for more conflict?
President Adams on
the XYX Affair….”I will
never send another
minister to France
without assurances
that he will be
received, respected,
and honored as the
representative of a
great, free, powerful
and independent
To avoid war with France, President
Adams sent 3 US representatives
(John Marshall, Charles Pinckney and
John Jay) to negotiate a peace
US representatives were snubbed
by the French government……
Eventually, 3 French
representatives (known as X, Y and Z
because they refused to give their
XYZ demanded a bribe of $250,000
to merely talk with Tallyrand
Insulted, we refused the demands
and left France…
US & French begin to fight an
undeclared naval war.
Fighting with France
• Americans
wanted war and
were heard to say
• “millions for
defense, but not
one cent for
• US prepares for
war, expands
navy, creates the
US Marine Corps.
Quasi War with France
• 1798-1800: In undeclared hostilities,
mostly around West Indies
• Undeclared naval war
• US captured over 80 French ships
but lost several hundred to France.
• Needed only slight push for war.
ISSUE: Does the United States Govt have
the right to suspend your rights (Bill of
Rights) in time of crisis (such as war) to
protect the national security of the
ALIEN ACT: Congress gave President Adams the
power to deport any immigrant who was
considered a risk to national security….Also,
changed naturalization (immigrants who want
to become citizens) from 5 years to 14 yrs…
SEDITION ACT: Congress gave President Adams
special powers to arrest anyone who spoke
out against the war effort….Primarily
against Jefferson’s Democratic/Republicans
and newspaper editors who opposed the
 “That if any person shall write, print, utter, or
publish, or shall cause or procure to be
written, printed, uttered or published, or shall
knowingly and willingly assist in any false,
 Scandalous and malicious writing or writings
against the government of the United States,
or either house of Congress or the President
of the United States,
 Then such person, being thereof convicted
before any court of the United States, shall be
punished by a fine not exceeding two
thousand dollars and by imprisonment not
exceeding two years……”
Federalist Witch Hunt
• Alien Laws also gave President authority
to deport (peace) or imprison (wartime)
• Sedition Act: prohibited impeding policies
of government or falsely defaming
officials ~ aimed at Jeffersonian
Kty/va resolutions
Jefferson’s and Madison’s response
to the Sedition Act…..They tried to
convince the other states not to
support the Sedition Act….It failed
and the Sedition Act remained the
law until 1801.
DOCTRINE OF NULLIFICATION: Since the States created
the National Government, they have the right to
nullify, cancel or decide not to obey a law they
believed was unconstitutional ….
COMPACT THEORY: Belief Jefferson and Madison held
that since the states created the National Govt.
and the states entered into this compact
voluntarily, they have the right to refuse to obey
any law they believe is unconstitutional…
John S. Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Significance of Election of 1800
• peaceful transfer of power from one
political party to another
• “revolutionary” achievement
Jefferson Administration
(actions in red)
• Fear: Jefferson would 1)
return power to the states,
2) dismantle army and
navy, 3) overturn Ham.
Financial plans
• Mudslinging: Jefferson a
brandy soaked defamer of
the church, an atheist
Democratic Republicans
DR Charged Federalists with contempt of
the people’s liberties.
1) Large standing army-cut $ & size, yet
used to enforce Embargo and against
2) Imposed heavy taxes & use the bank to
support the elite interests- eliminated many
taxes but kept the bank and economic
system in place
3) Use of federal troops and courts to
supress dissent- used to enforce Embargo
4) Stretched the Constitution to fit political
goals- also stretched to acquire LA
Fear: Federalist goal to centralize power
and involve the US in a war with France
1. Jefferson: 1801 to 1809
• VP: Aaron Burr
• The Revolution of 1800
• peaceful transfer of power
• Jeffersonian Democracy
2. Marbury vs. Madison, 1803
• Midnight appointments of Adams.
• Chief Justice John Marshall
• Judicial Review
• Power of Supreme Court to declare a
FEDERAL law unconstitutional
Judicial Review in a Picture
16 | 15
•Who is he?
•Born in Virginia
•Graduate of William and
Mary College
•A practicing lawyer and
member of Virginia’s House of
•Father of the DOI
•Secretary of State under
President Washington
•Vice President under Adams
•Owned 200 slaves
•1800, France acquired Spanish Louisiana & New Orleans
•Because of pressure from the west and national security
threats, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France
•Offered Napoleon $10 million to buy New Orleans
•If sale fails, instructed to seek alliance with England
Since Napoleon was at war
with Great Britain he offered
entire Louisiana Territory to
US for $15 million
Needed the money for his war
with Great Britain
Jefferson purchased Louisiana
Territory for $15 million,
about 3 cents an acre
Doubled the size of the US
Jefferson’s greatest
accomplishment but no
congressional approval
Why? Land acquisition
without war
Ole Ograbme
Road to War (1812)
• How will Jefferson and Madison try to
avoid war?
• Causes:
• 1. Chesapeake-Leopold Affair
– British Chesapeake vs American Leopold
– Impressment
Road to War (1812)
• 2. British in western forts
• 3. Tecumseh- pan Indian unification efforts
– Native Americans fight with British supplied weapons/ammo
• Battle of Tippecanoe (1807)
• Tecumseh unifies a confederacy of tribes
• The Prophet teaches to avoid American influence and ways
• Battle led to US victory under General William Henry
Harrison (future President)
• Marked end of Native American resistance in Northwest
• Further secured Westward expansion for eager settlers
Road to War (1812)
• Levers of Influence
1. Economic lever:
Embargo Act 1807 –
Economic embargo
Enforced at borders and ports
Politically polarizing
How does this impact Jefferson’s administration?
Road to War (1812)
• 2. Failure of Diplomatic Lever
• Non-Intercourse Act –
– Replaced Embargo Act
– Banned trade with Britain and France
– Ineffective
• Macon’s Bill No. 2– Carrot and stick
– Clumsy legislation
– Reopened trade with Napoleon
 Course of war: fought along Canadian border & Atlantic Coast
American plans to invade/take Canada fail
Pushed back to defend American soil
Battle of Lake Erie: Commodore Perry’s victory
British troops burn Washington D.C.
 Dolly Madison saves national treasures
 Rise in patriotism similar to after Pearl Harbor and 9/11
 Fort McHenry: Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner
 Treaty of Ghent signed in 1815
 Wait for ratification
 Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson’s victory (Old Hickory)
 Secures America’s victory and ratification of treaty
 Jackson mounts defense of city from fortified position
 British lost 2,000 killed, US 71 fatalities
 Outcome: 1. Gained little concessions
 British agree to remove troops
 Recognize territorial boundaries
 2. New American heroes:
 William Henry Harrison & Tecumseh
 Andrew Jackson
 3. Inspired greater nationalism (identity)
 4. Spurred American manufacturing (high protective tariffs)
 1820’s-1840’s significant growth
 Transition to permanent wage labor
 Labor force composed of men, women & children by 1840’s
 Tension between immigrants and native Americans
 Characteristics: long hours, low pay, unsanitary conditions, laissezfaire (little government intervention in business)
 President James Monroe elected 5th President (1816-1824)
 Political differences remain, partisan politics fades
 Sectionalism: needs of North, South and West
 Issues of the day:
 Bank: Westerners distrust banks & creditors especially after Panic
of 1819 (p. 266)
 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) upheld the Constitutionality of the
Bank. Second Bank of the United States rec. a 20 year charter (due at
end of President Jackson’s term in office)
 Internal improvements: federal/state/ or private funding of roads,
canals, (later RR’s) etc.
 Protective tariffs: tax on imported goods to encourage purchase of
American manufactured goods
 Growth of federal executive & judicial power viewed with increasing
distrust by southerners
 Foreign Affairs under Monroe: Foreign nations pose a threat to
US borders
 1. Spain: accused of inciting Seminole Indians against US in
Florida (1818)
 Andrew Jackson seized Spanish Florida
 Demand tighter control of inhabitants
 Treaty granted US rights to Florida & Oregon
 2. Russia closes rich fur trading land along coast off to non-
 3. Latin American revolutions had led to successful overthrow of
European colonial rule but rumored Spain would try to regain these
colonies in America (ex. Mexican Indep. In 1821)
 Led to the Monroe Doctrine (1823)
 Claimed colonization period in the Americas had ended
 Warned against future European intervention
 No military might to back claim
 Domestic Affairs:
 Missouri applied for
statehood as a slave holding
 Upset balance of 11 slave
and 11 slave free states
 Congress debated role of
slavery: federal or state
level decision
 Missouri Compromise of
1820: maintained balance
 Admitted Missouri as a slave
 Admitted Maine as a slave
free state
 Slavery prohibited above the
36 degree parallel
Constitutional? Unconstitutional?
Extra Slides
•Many historians look at this time period as
the beginning of the true democracy.
•Champion for the common man
•Believed education would prepare them for
participation in government…..
•For now, educated should rule…
•Believed National Government became too
powerful during Adam’s Presidency
•Kept most Federalist programs. WHY?
•Washington/Adams laid a solid foundation for USA.
•Pardoned those arrested with Sedition Act
•Repealed the Whiskey tax
•Kept Hamilton’s financial policies—BUS
•Eliminated Alien Act