Governing the Republic: Federalists & Repulicans

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Transcript Governing the Republic: Federalists & Repulicans

Governing the
Republic: Federalists
& Republicans
Chapter 13
8-2.6 Explain the roles of South Carolinians in
the establishment of new state and national
governments after the American Revolution.
8-3.4 Analyze the position of South Carolina
on the issues that divided the nation in the
early 1800s, including the assumption of state
debts, the creation of a national bank, the
protective tariff and the role of the United
States in the European conflict between
France and England and in the War of 1812.
I. Organizing the Government
In 1789, George Washington
was elected the nation’s first
Alexander Hamilton was
chosen as Secretary of the
Treasury. Thomas Jefferson
was chosen as secretary of
State. John Adams served as
Washington’s Vice President.
The Bill of Rights were
passed & the federal courts
were established.
II. Hamilton’s Economic Policy
Alexander Hamilton created a successful economic plan
for the new nation.
Hamilton wanted
 The federal gov’t to pay states the cost of the
Revolution (SC liked this)
 A tax on goods coming from other countries
 A national bank (This was a problem for D-Rep.)
 Congress to create a high protective tariff on imported
goods to encourage Americans to make goods at home
 SC did NOT like Tariffs
 Washington supported Hamilton’s programs. He also
supported a strong military force.
III: Republican Opposition to Federalist Policy
The people who supported Hamilton were Federalists. The DemocraticRepublicans thought he had gone too far. They became our first 2
political parties.
After Washington served 2 terms, he retired to his home, Mt. Vernon,
In the election to replace him, the Federalists nominated John Adams.
The Democratic-Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson.
John Adams won the presidential election. TJ was 2nd place so he was
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
IV: The Republicans in Power
4 years later, the same 2 men ran for president
again. This time Jefferson won & served 2 terms.
He worked hard to lower taxes and limit the
amount of money the nation spent.
 He also basically doubled
the size of the country by
purchasing the Louisiana
Territory from France. This
gave America land west of the
Mississippi River.
V. The War of 1812
In 1808, James Madison was elected president. He was a DemocraticRepublican, like Jefferson.
England and France went to war. Both nations began stopping American
ships and impressing (kidnapping) American sailors.
Some Americans believed that the British were urging Native Americans
to war against the US.
By 1812, many Americans believed we needed to go to war with Britain.
These people were known as War Hawks.
America was not ready for war. Britain won most of the early battles.
They captured Washington D.C. and burned the Capitol and White
Both nations realized the war was not worth the effort & a peace treaty
was signed in 1814.
VI: XYZ Affair
SC became deeply involved in the controversy over the
French Revolution.
Citizen Edmond Genet came to Charleston. He tried to
enlist volunteers to attack the Spanish in Louisiana.
President Washington was very upset by this action.
When J. Adams was president, the French threatened
to declare war on the US. Adams sent men, including
Charles Pinckney, to talk with the French.
Representatives of the French government asked for a
bribe before starting the talks. Pinckney replied, “No,
no, not a sixpence.” When he returned home, he was
treated as a hero.
Pinckney was the Federalist candidate for vice
president in 1800, and was the candidate for president
in 1804 and 1808.
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were two acts passed by
Federalists in Congress caused by disputes between
Federalists and Republicans.
The Alien Act stated that the president could remove foreign
residents from the country if they were suspected to be
involved in treason or plots against the government.
The Sedition Act stated that citizens of the United States
could not join any plots against the government’s
Embargo Act
Jefferson passed a law to prevent the US from trading with
England and France
This hurt SC b/c our state relied upon trade of rice, indigo etc
for most of its money
It also hurt shipbuilders in the New England States
VII. Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain
In 1795 Spain realized a border needed to be established between
the US and Florida. The US sent Thomas Pinckney to negotiate the
Pinckney’s Treaty established the 31st parallel as the boundary,
giving us rights to use the Mississippi River and unload goods in
New Orleans without paying a customs duty.
Congress quickly accepted Pinckney’s treaty & he became the
Federalist candidate for vice president in 1796.
VIII: Unifying the State
In 1800, SC was still deeply split between Up Country & Low Country,
between Federalists and Republicans.
Several changes helped unify our state:
 Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin - cotton could be grown
more effectively all over the state, providing a common economic
 The Republicans became the majority party, giving the state a
common political base.
 The creation of the South Carolina College, now the University of
South Carolina.
 The Compromise of 1808 helped bring about political unity
throughout the state.
IX: Religion & Social Unity
Churches in the nation and the
state had to reorganize after the
The greatest religious impact
came with the Second Great
Awakening. In May, 1802, 12,000
people attended the first camp
meeting in South Carolina.
Methodist, Baptist and
Presbyterian ministers preached
day and night.
The Methodists and Baptists soon
dominated the religious life of SC