Revolutions - Aurora Public Schools
Transcript Revolutions - Aurora Public Schools
The Scientific Revolution
Aristotle was the Greek philosopher and the authority on physics until this time:
Everything on earth is composed of four elements:
Earth, water, air, and fire.
The Scientific Revolution is dated to the publication of Copernicus’s book On the
Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (1543)
---- explained his heliocentric theory of the universe.
Heliocentric theories had been previously found in ancient Indian Vedic texts.
Some believe Copernicus consulted Muslim mathematical texts when working out
the math of his theories. He discussed Ibn Battuta in some of his works.
The Scientific Revolution
Basic changes of the new science:
1. The replacement of the Earth by the Sun as the center of the universe
2. The replacement of the Aristotelian theory that matter was continuous and
made up of the elements Earth, Water, Air, and Fire by rival ideas that
matter was atomistic or that its chemical composition was even more
3. All heavenly bodies are heavy and move according to the same physical
4. Better understanding of the circulatory system of the human body
5. The way scientists studied became more inductive, rather than deductive.
6. The role of mathematics became more important as an element of proof.
Galileo: "with regard to those few [mathematical propositions] which the
human intellect does understand, I believe its knowledge equals the Divine
in objective certainty."
The Scientific Revolution:
Results of the Changes
The Church felt threatened by the findings of these new scientists and philosophers,
not because of the science, but because of the challenge to established ways of
Most of the important scientific pioneers of the time did not see a conflict between
science and religion.
Newton made numerous speeches proving the validity of Christianity:
He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set
the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done.“
Other names to recognize:
Rene Descartes: Sought to prove the existence of certain knowledge (everything
can be experimented, everything outside the mind is matter)
Francis Bacon: Inductive reasoning: observe nature with the senses, from the data
make generalizations that can be tested (the early scientific method)
• Stemmed from the belief that everything (agriculture, laws, religion, social
patterns) could be understood through human reason.
• The importance of the Enlightenment is debated, but should it be?:
• The ideals of freedom, democracy, and human reason can be traced to this
time. The political revolutions after 1750 (U.S. and France) were based on
• The contractual basis of government formed, and then followed the ideas
of capitalism, socialism, and religious tolerance.
• It marked the end of Medieval superstition, intolerance, and tyranny, while
introducing greater rights for common people, the formation of political
nations, and the lessening of influence and power of authoritarian
institutions such as nobility and the church.
European Politics 1500-1750:
The Holy Roman Empire
• Elected in 1519, Charles V was from the Hapsburg family
• He ruled a loose confederation of states in modern Germany, and he inherited
parts of Spain as well. Map.
• Charles hoped to centralize his power, increase his empire to include more of
Europe, and unite the states to fight against the encroaching Muslims in the south—
• Peace of Augsburg 1555: Charles allowed princes to choose Catholicism or
Protestantism in their states, and he gave up his idea of a vast European empire
• Charles abdicated the throne after decades of warfare over religion.
• The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) seriously declined the HRE economically. An
international conflict, this war was primarily religious in nature. It reduced the
population of Germany by 1/3, the male population by ½.
• The war hurt all of Europe economically and was ended by the Peace of
European Politics 1500-1750: Spain
• Spain was the dominant power in the 16th century, due mostly the income of
• To defend the nation against the Protestant Reformation Phillip II used the Spanish
Inquisition (an ecclesiastical court) to punish Protestants and Jews and other critics
of the king.
• The Spanish Armada 1588: as part of an undeclared war against England for
control of the Netherlands; an embarrassing defeat, not just because they were
outfought by England, but because of bad luck in the sea. Map.
• Wars against the Dutch were costly and unsuccessful, ending in defeat in 1648.
• By 1600, 3% of the population controlled 97% of the land, and were exempt from
taxation because of aristocratic privileges.
• The American silver brought in by Spain did nothing but cause inflation.
European Politics 1500-1750: France
• France was the most dominant European state in the 17th and 18th centuries.
• Protestants in France were called Huegenots and were granted freedom in 1598
under the Edict of Nantes. Generally, though, the rulers of France were Catholic.
• Monarchs in France ruled under the old theory of Divine Right—God gave
monarchs absolute authority to rule on earth
• The Bourbon family monarchs ruled without calling the Estates General (clergy,
nobility, and bourgeoisie)
• Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles demonstrated the luxury of the elite and starkly
contrasted the poor of France.
• Louis XIV attempted to expand French borders but was blocked by early
international alliances, forming a balance of power in Europe.
• Louix XIV’s financial administrator named Colbert helped develop the national
economy by improving tax collection, promoting French goods by taxing foreign
items, improving interior transportation. The debt of France was not managed well.
Versailles: Palace Grounds; Hall of Mirrors; Queen’s Bedchamber; King’s
European Politics 1500-1750: The Netherlands
• The Dutch conducted more than half of all oceangoing commercial shipping in the
world in the 17th century.
• Amsterdam, the biggest city in the Netherlands, was Europe’s financial center and
a huge port where innovative new ships were designed and built.
• The Dutch began the joint-stock company, which gave them a monopoly on trade
in the Indies.
• They had to fight off the Spanish for 80 years before finally gaining independence.
Then wars based on economic competition ensued with Britain after 1650.
European Politics 1500-1750: England
• England became a Protestant state when Henry VIII could not obtain an
annulment for his (non-male producing) marriage n 1533. He renounced
Catholicism and declared the English monarch the head of the Church of England
• English Puritans felt that Henry did not move far enough away from the Catholic
• King Charles I ruled for eleven years without summoning Parliament. When he
could no longer afford to ignore them (he needed their permission to raise taxes)
they insisted on new, strict guidelines forcing the king to call Parliament regularly.
King Charles refused, beginning the English Civil War in 1642.
• Charles was defeated and Parliament called Oliver Cromwell to rule England.
Under his leadership Ireland and Scotland were brought under control, but
Parliament was still excluded.
• King James II then threatened England with Catholicism and the Glorious
Revolution of 1688 exiled him and created new laws forcing the call of Parliament