Adapting to Droughts Among Poor Rural Households in Semi

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Transcript Adapting to Droughts Among Poor Rural Households in Semi

Adapting to Droughts Among Poor
Rural Households in Semi-arid
Nigeria: Influencing Factors and
Enhancing Opportunities
Anthony Nyong
University of Jos, Nigeria
UNFCCC In-Session Workshop on Impacts of, and vulnerability and
Adaptation to, Climate Change.
Hotel Maritim, Bonn, Germany
18 June 2004
Acknowledgement
This report outlines some of the experiences
drawn from an AIACC supported project on
Assessing the Vulnerability and Adaptation of
Households to droughts in the West African
Sahel.
Funding for AIACC (Assessment of Impacts and
Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple
Regions) was provided by GEF, USAID, CIDA and
USEPA.
AIACC is jointly administered by START (Global
SysTems for Analysis, Research and Training) and
TWAS (Third World Academy of Science)
“Africa
is Highly Vulnerable to
Climate Change.”
IPCC 2001
Introduction
Climate is changing with far reaching impacts
Recurrent drought is a major climatic problem
affecting the livelihoods of the people in
semi-arid northern Nigeria.
Not everyone is equally vulnerable.
Some have already adapted to the
phenomenon, while others have not. So:
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Who has adapted?
How have they adapted?
What factors influence their capacity to adapt?,
and
What enhancement opportunities exist to further
increase their adaptive capacity?
Project Context
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From the beginning of the
20th Century, the
following drought events
have been recorded in
Northern Nigeria:
 1904-1912
 1914 – 1930
 1942
 1950-1952
 1966 – 1968
 1969 – 1974
 1983 – 1984
 1987
Adaptation Strategies
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Use of shallow wells
Small-scale irrigation initiatives
Planting of drought-resistant crop varieties
Nomadism (transhumance)
Crop and animal diversification
Income diversification
Reliance on neglected local food resources
Relocation and migration
Influencing Factors (1)
Availability of Resources
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Financial Resources
Human and Natural capital
Socio-cultural capital
Appropriate Technology
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Water Extraction and storage
Climate forecast
Improved cropping systems and varieties
Influencing Factors 2
Government Policy
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National Drought Action Plan
Nomadic Education Program
Strategic Grains Reserve Program
Fadama Agriculture Program
National Emergency Management Agency
National Agency for Poverty Eradication
NEEDS
Influencing Factors (3)
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Capacity Building through Establishment of
Regional and National Institutions.
Presidential Implementation Committee on
CDM
Attitudes and Perception of
Stakeholders
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The “victim” syndrome
Common Resource
Enhancing Opportunities for
Adaptation (1)
Government Policy
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Setting of long term national goals
Mainstreaming adaptation into national
economic policies
Elimination of edge problems in managing
drought and climate change issues
Institutional change (credit facilities, pricing &
market policies)
Pursue beneficial impacts of climate change
Provide for the security of Lives
Enhancing Opportunities for
Adaptation (2)
Agricultural systems
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Develop new varieties in line with local norms
(indigenous research)
Introduce appropriate technology
Evolve a system of attitudinal change in
unsustainable agricultural practices
Extension services on information dissemination
Capacity Building
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Build on Indigenous Knowledge to develop good
practice guidance for the design of adaptation
strategies
Establishment of a data bank to collate researches
and information on vulnerabilities and adaptation
So?
What do the people want?
Listen to the stakeholders
As proposed by
project sponsor
As produced by the
programmers
As specified in
project request
As designed by
senior analyst
As installed at the
user’s site
What the user
wanted