Biotechnology Notes

Download Report

Transcript Biotechnology Notes

What is Biotechnology?
• Biotechnology: the branch of molecular biology
that studies the use of microorganisms to perform
specific industrial processes; "biotechnology
produced genetically altered bacteria that solved
the problem"
• Introducing foreign DNA
into an organism in order to
modify the organism’s DNA.
Areas of Use
Food science
Criminal Investigations
Biotechnology and Agriscience
Food crop manipulations
Disease-resistant crops
Biological Pesticides
More Food
Less Hunger
Increased Profit
Needs less land
• Biodiversity
• Human Health
• Nature
Genetically Modified
• Is an organism whose genetic
material has been altered using
genetic engineering techniques.
• These experimental
combinations of genes
from different species cannot
occur in nature or in
traditional crossbreeding.
Impact of Biotechnology
• Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are
consumed by millions of people (especially
Americans) EVERY DAY.
– Almost 56% of all soybean plantings worldwide
are genetically engineered (much higher in the
Impact of Biotechnology
• Genetically modified crops were produced on more
than 167 million acres in 18 countries in 2003, a
15% increase from 2002
– The US was the largest single producer with more
than 60% of the total acreage in production.
• Is a gene or genetic material
that has been transferred
naturally, or by any of a number
of genetic engineering
techniques from one organism
to another.
• The introduction of a transgene
has the potential to change
the phenotype of an organism.
Plant Science
• Wide scale
production of
transgenic plants
Farming & the Environment
• Decreases soil erosion
• Helps protect water
• Conserves land & fossil fuels
the use of pesticides
• fuels
• Increases crop yields
• Reduces farmer production
• Decreases farmer exposure
to pesticides
• Improves farming
 Must keep the cost of improving products as
low as possible.
 Biotech results in greater efficiency.
Animal Science
• Increased use of methods of in vitro fertilization
and artificial insemination improve selected breed
Environmental Science
• Use of biotechnology techniques in environmental
science for cleaning contaminants and protecting
endangered species
– Bioremediation-use of natural organisms to
clean contaminants
– Example Gulf Oil Spill
Did you know that the key to ridding the oceans of oil
may already lie in underneath its surface?
Bioremediation — using naturally present
microorganisms to clean up oil spills — makes use
of bacteria living in the ocean who actually “eat” the
oil when it enters their natural habitat. Adding sulfate
or nitrate fertilizers to the microorganism population
causes them to multiply beyond their natural state and
eat up the toxic metals invading their home at up to
Problems with Biotechnology in
Problems with Biotechnology
• Transfer of genes found in transgenic
organisms to natural populations.
–Terminator genes have been used to
minimize this risk.
Problems with Biotechnology
• Unexpected impacts of genetically modified
organisms and biotechnology processes on
other organisms and the environment.
Problems with Biotechnology
• Expense of the utilization of many biotechnology
– Cost of producing transgenic animals (There are
transgenic fish, but no livestock yet.)
Problems with Biotechnology
• Concerns over the safety and ethics
of incorporating GMO’s into food for
human consumption.
– Allergens
– Example: The use of Star link corn
in taco shells not approved for
human consumption.
Problems with Biotechnology
• Lack of education among both consumers and
producers concerning biotechnology processes and
• Pharming – the creation of plants and animals
capable of producing medical substances.
• The use of biological barriers to prevent the spread
of harmful microorganisms that could contaminate
food sources.
• DNA analysis/paternity testing has emerged
as a technique to test the genetic ancestry of
• Vaccines
• Tissue Replacement
– Ex Organs grown to replace your own
• Genetic Origins of Diseases
– Ex. Is it linked to your genetic make-up
• Medicine
– Ex. Penicillin/Alexander Fleming
– Human Insulin for diabetes
Being able to alter genes
Genetically engineered babies
Link disease genetically
• Process of producing a new
organism from cells or tissues of
existing organism.
• 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in
Edinburgh Scotland
Genetic Engineering
• Changing the genetic information in a cell
• Specific trait of one organism may be isolated, cut, and
moved into the cell of another organism.
DNA Fingerprint
• A technique used especially for identification (as
for forensic purposes) by extracting and identifying
the base-pair pattern in an individual's DNA —
called also DNA typing.
Criminal Investigation
• DNA fingerprinting
– Evidence that person was involved in a crime.
• Data Bases
– Allows criminal investigator to have access to
people’s DNA to compare to evidence.
DNA Fingerprint
• Forensic Investigator
– Criminal Activity
• Police
– Criminal Activity
– Identify a Person
• Research
– Labortory
• Agricultural
– Development of plants and
• Biology
• Genetics
• Forensic Investigator
• Biotechnician
– Create safe products for
• Medicine
– Doctor
• Predict Patients genetic
Ethical Issues
• Benefits of technology outweigh
the harm.
• Example of some issues
– Decreased biodiversity
– Cloning
– Designer babies
– Companies requiring
– Selective Breeding
– Environmental Harm
– Super Germs
Impact of Biotechnology
• The NC Biotechnology Center predicts that the
biotechnology industry in the state will contribute
more than $25 billion in annual income each year
within the next 25 years.
North Carolina
Over 400 companies have great impact on economy
Improved crop yield
Created disease resistant crops(greatest
Improved livestock producing higher quality meat
North Carolina
Creates Jobs
• 237,665 jobs
• $59 billion in North Carolina business volume
• $1.73 billion in taxes generated for state and local
• A thriving industry with more than 500 companies