Mutations & Genetic Engineering

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Transcript Mutations & Genetic Engineering

Mutations & Genetic
A change in the nucleotide sequence of the
genome of an organism
A mutation that changes one base
• Possible outcomes:
– New codon codes for the same amino acid – silent
– New codon changes the amino acid – missense
• Sickle cell anemia
– New codon codes for a stop codon – non sense
Frameshift Mutations
• A change in the reading pattern of the DNA
• Causes:
– Deletions
• Sections of DNA are missing
• Example: Williams Syndrome
– Insertions
• Mutations in which an extra base is inserted
Involves changes in the number or structure of
• Deletion- loss of all or part
– Cystic Fibrous
• Duplication – segment is repeated
–Huntington’s disease
• Inversion – orientation is in the reverse direction
• Translocation – two non homologous
chromosomes exchange segments
Genetic Engineering
Manipulating an organism’s genome using
Genetically Modified Organisms
Organisms who have been genetically altered
using biotechnology
These are also
referred to as
transgenic organisms
Transgenic Organisms
• Microorganisms
– Insulin production
– Clotting Factors
• Plants (GMOs)
– Insect resistant
– Weather Resistant
• Mammals
– Medicine
– Commerical
Making an exact genetic copy of an organism
Why clone?
1. Medical purposes
Animal models
Stem cells
Drug production
2. Reviving extinct or
3. Pet trade
Stem Cells
Cells that can divide and differentiate into
diverse specialized cells
Why study stem cells?
1. They are unspecialized &
can reproduce (mitosis)
2. They can be induced to
become specific cells with
specific functions.
Two types:
DNA Fingerprinting
A method of isolating and making images of a
person’s unique DNA sequence
Process: Gel Electrophoresis
with help from restriction enzymes
DNA Fingerprints