Digital Presentation The Crusades

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Transcript Digital Presentation The Crusades

•1095-1096 The Peasants Crusade
•1095-1099 The First Crusade
•1147-1149 The Second Crusade
•1189-1192 The Third Crusade
•1202-1204 The Fourth Crusade
•1202? 1212? The Children’s Crusade
•1218-1221 The Fifth Crusade
•1228-1229 The Sixth Crusade
•1248-1254 The Seventh Crusade
•1270-12?? The Eighth Crusade
•The Ninth Crusade
Pope Urban II calls for
the Crusades
Perhaps the greatest irony of the
Crusading period is that Pope Urban II,
the man who cried "Dieu Le Volt : God Wills It" ,
the very words that rallied men to take up the
sword in the name of Christendom, died in 1099
before hearing of the success of the First Crusade
to Jerusalem. Urban II was born in 1042 CE and
was crowned Pope in 1088 at the age of 46. We may
never know what was said by the Pope on
November 27th, 1095, as the many accounts of
that speech are varied. More important, however
are the reasons the crusade was called in the first
Pope Urban II’s Goals
•Urban sought a reunification of the
Eastern and Western Churches
•To put an end to the fighting among
land owners and feudal societies in
Europe. By redirecting hostilities
towards a common enemy, the
Infidels, the Christians could fight a
mutual cause.
•He wanted to make safe travel
routes to and from the near East, the
Holy Land, as many pilgrims were
traveling to the area and being killed
on route.
•He wanted to assert the power of the
Roman Catholic Church
The First Crusade!
• Was originally to protect Constantinople,
but became a Crusade to free Jerusalem
• Jerusalem was captured on July 15, 1099
• Almost all inhabitants killed, Muslim, Jew,
or Christian, their blood purified the city!
• Death in the name of Religion! Does it still
happen today?
Massacred Jews graves at
Worms, 6,000 killed!
c. 1096
The Second
•Led by Louis VII of France and
Conrad III Holy Roman Emperor
•This Crusade was in response to
Muslim unification
•Muslims had taken back lands to
the east of Jerusalem, that the
First Crusade had conquered
•Both Crusader armies failed to
take back any land, thus the
Second Crusade failed
Third Crusade/Kings
• Led by Kings in EuropePhillip of France, Richard of
England, Fredrick [Holy
Roman Emperor], Guy of
Jerusalem, Henry II of
Champagne, and Geza of
• Takes place because of the
Muslims recapturing
Jerusalem in 1187
• Crusaders fail to retake
Jerusalem and all later
attempts will fail as well
• Muslims control Jerusalem for
the next 700+ years
The Fourth Crusade
• Goal was to retake Jerusalem, but
soon because of greed the
“Crusade” focused its attention on
the Byzantine Empire [the
Christian Empire that protected
Europe from the Muslims, and
whom the Crusades were suppose
to protect]
• Crusaders massacred thousands of
Christians in Byzantium, looted the
cities and destroyed vast amounts
of cultural treasures
• Seen as one of the worst Christian
upon Christian tragedies in the
history of the world
Children’s Crusade
•Very sketchy on details! Some say 1202 some say 1212
•Children from France and Germany tried unsuccessfully to
travel to the Holy Land, 1,000’s died or simply disappeared.
•This, supposedly, is the children’s tale the Pied Piper- A
person comes to town and leads all the children away- the
mice or rats in the story represent the children lost to this
Other Crusades
• All Following
crusades failed to
regain, or hold, the
Holy land, but
brought knowledge
of the world
outside of Europe
and increased
The Fifth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade (1216-1220) was led by the kings of Hungary and Cyprus. Its strength was wasted in Egypt,
and it resulted in nothing
The Sixth Crusade
The Sixth Crusade (1227-1229), headed by Frederick II of Germany, without any involvement of the Pope,
Frederick negotiated, without fighting, the control of Jerusalem and surrounding lands to HIM. Although many
places remained under the control of Muslims, Frederick did rule of Jerusalem for 15 years. Then Muslims drove
the Europeans out again.
The Seventh Crusade
The Seventh Crusade (1249-1254) was under the lead of Louis IX of France, surnamed the Saint, again without
Papal involvement. Louis along with thousands of “troops” were defeated and captured in Egypt and were
ransomed back to France.
The Eighth Crusade
The Eighth Crusade (1270) Again the leader of the eighth crusade was King Louis IX of France. King Louis IX
along with a son died of “some disease” while in Northern Africa. Charles I of the Holy Roman Empire took
command, but soon signed a treaty to end fighting with nothing achieved.
The Ninth and Last Crusade
The Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272) The leader of this crusade was Prince Edward of England, afterwards King
Edward I. The English prince, was more successful than King Louis IX or Charles I. Edward succeeded in
capturing Nazareth, and in convincing the sultan of Egypt to agree to a treaty for trade and travel for Christians.
With this event the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end (1291). Although the Kingdom of Cyprus
remained a Christian stronghold until 1489, which was defended by the Knights Templar.