Transcript THE CRUSADES
Launching the CRUSADES
A long series or Wars between Christians and
They fought over control of Jerusalem which was
called the Holy Land because it was the region
where Jesus had lived, preached and died.
Many Christians believed that Christ would come
again only once the Christians “held” Jerusalem.
Muslims control the Holy Land
By the late 1000s the city of Jerusalem had fallen to
North African Muslims called FATIMADS
Muslims stopped Christians from visiting the Holy
Christian Pilgrims were attacked
Byzantine Empire feared Constantinople would be
The Byzantine Emperor turned to POPE URBAN II
COUNCIL OF CLERMONT
Urban called church leaders to a council in
There they were told of the dangers that Byzantine
He called on all Christian warriors, knights and nobles, to
put their differences aside and fight against the Turks.
“GOD WILLS IT!!” Hundreds volunteered for this
Crusaders were inspired by Pope Urban and left France
in 1096 in what is known as the FIRST CRUSADE.
9 Crusades happened between 1096 and 1291.
--different leaders, degrees of success but all had the
same goal--**Claiming or protecting the Holy Land**
FIRST CRUSADE 1096-1099
Many killed by Muslim Turks
Many knights resorted to looting towns and farms to
get needed supplies
Better prepared than peasants.
Eventually succeeded in capturing Jerusalem.
After 3 years of travelings, the Crusaders finally
Was a victory for the Crusaders , but involved
terrible fighting and ended in disaster for the
After winning, the Crusaders created four states
in the Holy Land.
SECOND CRUSADE (1147-1149)
After victory many Christians went back home.
The Muslims took the city of Edessa, the capital of one
of the Crusader states.
THEY CALLED FOR A SECOND CRUSADE
Launched in 1147, the Second Crusade was a failure.
The Crusaders took no land from the Muslims.
30 years after Second Crusade
A new leader arose in the Muslim World
SALADIN – had overthrown the Fatimids and took the title
of sultan for himself.
- set back out to gain back the Crusader states.
SUCCEEDED and drove European Christians out of
Christians responded to this by launching a THIRD
King RICHARD the LION-HEARTD of England
fought in the Holy Land.
Richard and Saladin had great respect for each other
even though they had never met.
Despite their respect for one another, the both fought
fiercely for control of the Holy Land.
Richard won several battles against the Muslims, but he
was not able to drive them out of the Holy Land or to
In the end, he had to admit that the Crusade was a draw
and return to England.
FOURTH AND LATER
With Jerusalem still in Muslim hands, Europeans set out on
the Fourth Crusade in 1201.
Could not afford to pay the Venetians who had arranged to
take them to the Holy Land.
Instead of payment, Crusaders agreed to attack the city of
Zara, a port that had once belonged to Venice but was held
by a Christian King of Hungary.
Angry that the Crusaders had attacked a Christian city, the
pope EXCOMMUNICATED them ALL.
Even so, the Crusaders still pushed to the Holy Land.
The Crusaders reached Constantinople and decided to
attack this city (it was Christian).
The FOURTH Crusade, too, due to lack of strong
leadership made the Fourth Crusade another failure.
5 other crusades followed but none were successful. By
1291 the Muslims had driven the Christians completely out
of the Holy Land.