Transcript Document

Exploration and Conquest of the
Reasons for Exploration: Gold
Spice trade
controlled by
Italians &
Ottoman Turks
Slave trade
controlled by
North African
Copyright 2000, Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Reasons for Exploration: God
The Reconquista ended with
the fall of Granada in Jan. 1492
Conquest & conversion of
Indians seen as extension
Hoped to join forces with
mythical Kingdom of Prester
John & renew Crusades
Queen Isabella
Reasons for Exploration: Glory
& technological advances
Desire to win fame &
Inspired in part by
Renaissance humanism
Technological advances:
Compass, astrolabe &
Better portaline maps
Caravel – 1st ship capable
of tacking against the wind
Portuguese caravel
The Portuguese Explorers
Est. sugar colonies in
Madeira (1420), Azores
(1427), Cape Verde Islands
(1460) & Saõ Tomé (1470)
Bartholomew Diaz rounded
Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco da Gama led
successful expedition to
India, 1497-99
Rejected Columbus because
they knew his calculations
were way off – underestimated circumference
Vasco da Gama Church
Christopher Columbus
Columbus sailed west in
Aug. 1492 – reached
Bahamas on Oct. 12
Explored Cuba &
Hispaniola, then returned
to Portugal March 4, 1493
Made 3 more voyages
Died convinced he had
been to Asia 4 times
The Spanish Explorers
Christopher Columbus
sailed west in Aug. 1492,
exploring Caribbean
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
divided world between Spain
(west) & Portugal (east)
Amerigo Vespucci first to
call it a new continent
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
claimed Brazil for Portugal in
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
crossed Panama in 1513 &
sees Pacific
The Conquistadores
Adelantados – private contractors
hired by King
Hernan Cortes conquered Mexican
Empire (Aztecs), 1519-21
Young minor nobleman
Led revolt by subject tribes who
resented tribute & human sacrifices
Hernan Cortes
Francisco Pizzaro conquered Inca,
Took advantage of civil war
Spread smallpox deliberately
Francisco Pizzaro
The Spanish Empire
Viceroys ruled New Spain & Peru
on King’s behalf
Each divided into provinces
Governors & audencias (courts)
ruled provinces
Haciendas = large plantations
growing cash crops (sugar, cotton,
cocoa, tobacco, etc.)
Mines were principle source of
wealth for Spain
16 million kg. entered Spain between
Crown kept 1/5 (quinto)
Flowed primarily to Spanish
Slave Labor
Encomienda = grant of
Indian labor to mine &
hacienda owners
Repartimiento =
requirement that
Indians work so many
days for Spanish
Modeled on feudalism,
but no protection for
When Indians died off,
replaced by Africans