Ancient Egypt

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Transcript Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
• Northeastern Africa
• Desert
• Nile River is 4,100 miles
• Upper Egypt and
Lower Egypt divided
by cataracts (rapids)
• The delta empties the
Nile into the
Mediterranean Sea
Desert = Natural Defense
• All of the cities and
villages were found
along the Nile
• The Sahara desert to
the west and the
Arabian desert to the
• The deserts kept
invaders out
Economics of the Nile
• Transportation of
• Slow, annual floods
• Silt = Excellent for
Wheat and barley
Olives and grapes
Governments Unite
• Small villages eventually united into
agricultural districts called nomes
• Each nome had its own specific rituals,
gods, and chieftains
• The nomes united into two groups:
Upper and Lower Egypt
• King Menes united all of Egypt
• Dynasty: series of rulers from the
same family
• Ancient Egypt has 31 dynasties over
2,800 years
• Pharaoh is head of government,
religion, and army.
• Very little turmoil or strife. Why?
Culture in Egypt
• Nobles: governors, generals, tax
collectors, and priests
– Lived in luxury
– Many servants
• Middle class: army, shop keepers and
– A little social mobility
– scribes
• Peasants: farmers and slaves
– Producing food or domestic service
– Physical labor during flood season
Religious Practices
• Maat: Justice, truth, right, and order
• Osiris would judge the dead, putting
hearts on scale
• The afterlife was really similar to real
• Priests could influence the gods for
Religion and afterlife
• Pharaohs ruled after death
• People would need to provide for
the eternal comfort of the Pharaoh
• Preserving the body ensured the
pharaoh could enter whenever he
First, they draw out the brains through the nostrils with an iron
hook…Then with a sharp stone they make an incision in the side
and take out the bowels…Then, having filled the belly with myrrh
and other perfumes…They steep the body in mineral salt water for
70 days…Then they wash the corpse, and wrap the whole body in
bandages of waxen cloth.
The Time of the Pyramids
• Tombs=palaces for
dead guys
• Stones weigh 2 ½ tons
• 2 million blocks in
• All this work, no slaves
• You too could have a
career as a grave
• Kohl on the eyes,
applied with a
• Fragrant oils on
skin and hair
• Powdered iron ore
and oil on lips and
• Writing: Pictographs
and ideographs are
– Rosetta stone
– Papyrus
• Numbers: assessing
and collecting taxes
• Geometry: plots of
land and building
• Calendar:
planting at the
right time
• Medicine: famous
– In demand around
the Mediterranean
– Reset bones
– studies