Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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Transcript Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Human Structure and Function I
Dr. Diane M. Gilmore
LSE 415
Phone: 680-8083
[email protected]
Office hours:
Monday and Wednesday 3 -5 p.m.
Thursday 2:30 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.
And by appointment
Medical Physiology 2nd or 3rd edition
Rodney A. Rhodes, Lippincott Williams
and Wilkins
Laboratory Manual - Human Anatomy
and Physiology 8th or 9th Cat edition
with PhysioEx by Marieb
Course Objectives:
Medical terminology
Organization of the body
Cell structure
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular and Nervous
Classroom Etiquette:
Turn off pagers and cell phones especially
during exams!
No tobacco use of any kind
Be considerate of others:
Take out what you bring in.
Talk to me, NOT your neighbor!
Do not ask for grades over the
phone or internet.
Academic Integrity
Use Professional ethics
Allowing others to copy from you
Penalties can be severe !!
Attendance is important !
All material covered in class is fair
game for exams!
Inclement weather
Disability services
Make ups
Schedule – read your syllabus !!!
Exams :
4 exams worth 100 points
Multiple choice, diagrams, fill-in and essay
Comprehensive final Exam
A = 450 – 50 points
B = 400 – 449 points
C = 350 – 399 points
D = 300 – 349 points
F less than 300 points
• Organization of the body and how it functions
• Begin to understand the complexities of the
human body and see how all body systems work
• Biochemistry, cells, tissues, and the
integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous
You will learn a new language, made up of
reusable and interchangeable parts.
Gluco – sugar - glucose
Neo - new
Genesis - to make, produce or generate
The production of new glucose molecules
from other, non-sugar, substances.
Gluco – sugar (glucose)
Uria - urine
An abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
Uria - urine
Hemato - blood
Blood in the urine
Hematoma means:
A) To produce excess urine
B) A clotting disorder where the patient
continues to bleed
C) A swelling caused by the growth of new
D) A swelling caused by blood
Anatomy is the study of the STRUCTURES of
the body, and the relationship among structures.
This is the WHAT and WHERE of the body.
The word itself means “to cut up.”
Types of anatomy
• Gross anatomy
– Regional anatomy
– Systemic anatomy
– Surface, developmental, clinical and surgical
• Microscopic anatomy
– Cytology
– histology
Physiology is the study of how the body
The “how” is often on a chemical level.
Anatomy and Physiology are closely
integrated, both theoretically and practically
All specific functions are performed by specific
organ system
cells – smallest living thing
Atoms (elements)
Homeostasis is maintaining a fairly constant
internal environment in spite of a changing
external environment.
All body systems attempt to maintain
What can upset homeostasis?
Feedback loops:
1. Control center
2. Receptors that monitor changes
3. Effectors receive information from the
control center and produce a response
Negative feedback reverses changes
Positive feedback brings a process to
Disease is a homeostatic imbalance.
Symptoms are subjective changes that are
not apparent to an observer.
Signs are objective changes which can be
observed or measured.
• We can divide the body into two
– Axial portion
– Appendicular portion
Thoracic and abdominopelvic membranes:
Visceral (guts) refers to the membrane
closest to the organs.
Parietal refers to the membrane that lines
the body walls.
The pleura surround the lungs
The pericardium surrounds the heart
The peritoneum surrounds the abdominal
Directional Terms:
Superior (cephalic or cranial) – toward the
head, upper, or above.
Inferior (caudal) – toward the feet, under or
Anterior (ventral) – front, or in front of
Posterior (dorsal) – back or in back of
Medial (mesial) – toward the midline of the
Lateral – toward the side of the body or away
from the midline
Intermediate – between two structures
Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body
Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body
Proximal – toward the trunk of the body or the
point of origin of a body part.
Distal – away from the trunk of the body or the
point of origin of a body part.
Superficial – toward the surface of the body
Deep – away from the body surface
Body Planes and Sections
• Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or