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Transcript REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848

AND 1848
What are the reasons for
• Consider the causes of the French
• Consider the causes of the Latin
American Revolutions
Liberty Leading the People
• Where is this
How can you
• What has
happening in
the scene?
• What is meant
by Liberty
leading the
Background to the 1830
• Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI)
regained the throne – What was the
principle of restoring the rightful
leaders back to power?
• What was the name of the famous
conference after Napoleon’s time in
power when leaders tried to get Europe
back to normal?
Louis XVIII and Liberal Reforms
• Approved a constitution – the Charter
of French Liberties
• Two-house legislature and limited
freedom of the press
Charles X Takes the Throne
• Louis XVIII died in 1824; brother
Charles X takes over
• Charles X believed in absolutism –
What does this mean?
• What do you think he will do with the
constitution? Why?
• Suspends the legislature and restricts
the right to vote and limits freedom of
the press
Citizens Led the July Revolution
• Angry liberals and RADICALS (those
favoring extreme change) took to the
• “To the barricades!”
• Fired on soldiers and pelted them with
stones and roof tiles
• The revolutionary tri-color flag flew
from the towers of Notre Dame
• Charles X fled to England
The “Citizen King” Rules France
• Radicals wanted to establish a republic
• Moderate liberals chose a constitutional
• Louis Philippe, cousin of Charles X chosen,
because during his youth, he supported the
1789 French Revolution
• Louis Philippe got along with the liberal
• Louis’ policies favored the wealthy – the
majority of people could still not vote
Louis Philippe – The “Citizen
• He
the 1789
• Later in his
career, his
was marked
and greed
Louis Philippe as Gargantua
The Spirit of Reform Spreads
• Metternich – Austrian foreign minister
• “When France sneezes, Europe catches
• Ex. Belgian independence
• Belgium had been united with Holland
and was ruled by the Dutch king
• Belgian bourgeoisie resented that
(Belgians spoke different language and
had different religion)
Belgium Gains Independence
• 1830 Uprising in Paris inspired
Belgians – they can do it too! Yes we
• Belgians took up arms against Dutch
troops in Brussels
• Britain and France believed they would
benefit from the separation of Belgium
and Holland – supported the Belgian
demand for independence
• 1831 – Belgium becomes independent
and has a liberal constitution
Rebels Fail in Poland
• In the late 1700s, Poland was divided among
Russia, Prussia, and Austria
• The Poles hoped to regain their
independence at the Congress of Vienna
• It didn’t happen. Instead most of it went to
• In 1830, Polish students, army officers, and
landowners rose in revolt.
• They failed to get enough support and the
Russian brutally crushed the revolt.
The French Revolt Again in 1848
• Radicals such as Utopian Socialists
wanted the end of private property
• Louis Philippe’s government was
• Recession caused unemployment
• Poor harvests – bread prices rose
• February 1848 – government tried to
limit people’s freedom to assemble and
express their frustration
1848 Revolt in Paris
• People took to the barricades and
clashed with royal troops
• Louis Philippe abdicated
• Liberal, radical, and socialist leaders
proclaimed the Second Republic (the
first was from 1792 – 1804 when
Napoleon became emperor)
The Second Republic Was
Deeply Divided
• Middle-class liberals wanted moderate
political reforms
• Socialists wanted major changes
• Forced the government to set up
national workshops to provide jobs for
the unemployed
• Bourgeois liberals gained greater
control of the government and shut
down the workshops
More Fighting in Paris in 1848
• Angry workers rioted in the streets
• Bourgeois liberals commanded the
army to put down the riot – 1,500
people died in fighting
• Peasants turned against the workers
because they feared that as socialists,
they would want to confiscate their
• A bitter legacy – middle-class
distrusted the socialists and the
workers hated the bourgeoisie
A New Napoleon Comes to
• The National Assembly was dominated
by members who wanted to restore
• It created a strong president and one
house legislature
• Extended voting rights to all adult men
– widest suffrage in Europe – 9 million
Frenchmen could vote compared with
only 200,000 before
A New Napoleon Comes to
• Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon is
• The working class supported the new
Napoleon – sympathetic to poverty
• The conservatives supported him – famous
family name, hoping to regain glory days
• 1852 – crowned himself Napoleon III – end of
the Second Republic and beginning of
Second Empire
• Used a plebiscite (vote of the people) to
uphold this power play – 90% of voters
supported his move to establish the Second
The New Napoleon
• Economy
recovered in
1850s –
bourgeoisie were
Revolution Surges Through
• 1848 – Revolution in Paris set off
revolutions around Europe
• Grievances had been piling up
• Middle-class liberals wanted greater
political rights
• Workers demanded relief from miseries
of Industrial Revolution
• Nationalists wanted independence from
foreign rule
• What countries on the map experienced
Austrian Revolution
• Revolts in major cities
• Remember Metternich? For what
famous event was he the chief
• Metternich censored newspapers but
books were smuggled into universities
• Workers and students took control of
the streets in Vienna
• Metternich resigned and fled in
• “You say you want a revolution. Well
you know. We all want to change the
world. You say you want a constitution.
Well, you know. We all want to change
the world.”
• Who said this?
• What caused the Revolutions of 1830
and 1848? Long-term causes? Shortterm causes?