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Organic compounds
› compounds of living organisms
› All contain Carbon atoms
 Has 4 available electrons
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Allows for great variety of compounds
Rings
Chains
branches
 Forms strong covalent bonds
 Single
 Double
 triple
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A cluster of atoms that influence or control
the molecule they are a part of and who
they react with
› Hydroxyl (OH) – part of all alcohols
(carbohydrates) and lipids
› Carboxyl (COOH) – part of amino acids which
are part of proteins, also part of lipids
› Amine (NH2) – part of amino acids which are
part of proteins
› Phosphates – (PO4) – found in nucleic acids, and
sugars (carbohydrates)
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Monomer – small simple
molecules
Polymers - repeated
monomers
› Condensation reactions: at H on one
monomer and OH on another monomer
› Hydrolysis – breaks monomers apart
Carbohydrates – acquire energy
from the sun
 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the
energy that most organisms use that
comes from carbohydrates
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› Becomes ADP when energy is released
to the cell
Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Lipids
 Nucleic Acids
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Organic molecules
Made of CHO
Source of immediate energy
Sugars and starches
Found in pasta, breads, rice,
wheat, potatoes, corn, etc.
Monosaccharide has 1:2:1 ratio
of C:H:O
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Glucose is the simplest sugar- that provides energy for
cells
Most common: glucose, fructose (fruit sugar), galactose
› Isomers – same formula but different shape
 Glucose
 fructose
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Disaccharides
› 2 sugars bonded together
 Sucrose (table sugar)=
fructose +glucose
 Lactose (milk sugar)
=glucose + galactose
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Polysaccharide
› Chains of sugars bonded together (aka
complex carbohydrate) – up to 1000’s of
monomers
› .
› Glycogen – stored polysaccharides in the liver
› Starch – stored polysaccharides in plants
› Cellulose – polysaccharide also made by plants
–makes up 50% of wood. We can’t digest it, but
some bacteria can
Organic compound
 Made of CHON
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Monomer is called an amino acid
 Polymer is amino acids bonded to each
other
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› Peptide bonds created by condensation
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.
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Amino acid composed of
› Amine
› Carboxyl group
› R group (unique to each
amino acid)
› H atom
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Proteins are polypeptides
20 naturally occurring
amino acids
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Functions
› Movement – muscle compounds are protein
› Structure – forms connective fibers
› Functions, con’t
 Transport – hemoglobin transports oxygen
 Storage – casein in milk stores amino acids for babies
› Functions, con’t
 Regulation – some hormones – insulin
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Functions, con’t
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Defense – antibodies are proteins
 Functions, con’t
 Biochemical control – enzymes
 Proteins that speed up reactions
 Substrate – what the enzyme is acting upon- substance being
changed
 Active site – where the enzyme binds and where change takes place
Nonpolar organic molecule
 Composed of CHO – no ratio, some P
 Store lots of energy
 Types
› Fatty Acids- most abundant
 Hydrophilic end (water loving)
 Hydrophobic end (water hating)
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 Can be saturated –
 all C-C single bonds
 holds all the H possible
 Not healthy
 Unsaturated
 some C=C double bonds
 More H could be added
 More healthy fat
› Triglycerides
 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol
 Saturated : butter and animal fat, solid at room temp
 Unsaturated: plant seeds, soft and liquid at room temp
› Phospholipids
 Found in cell membranes (lipid bi-layer)
 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol
› Waxes
 Long fatty acid attached to long alcohol
 Waterproof plants, and protects surfaces of
living organisms
› Steroids
 4 fused carbon rings
 Many hormones
 Testosterone
 cholesterol
VERY large molecules
 Two kinds
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› DNA – deoxyribonucleic
acid
 Contain hereditary
information
› RNA- ribonucleic acid
 Transfers DNA
information to make
proteins
 Some act as enzymes
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Complex molecule containing nucleotides
› Sugars
 DNA – deoxy-ribose sugar (5 carbon)
 RNA – ribose sugar (5 carbon)
› Phosphates
› Nitrogen bases
 DNA
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Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine
 RNA
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Cytosine
Guanine
Adenine
Urasil