• To identify the different parts of a feed
• To understand how nutrient aids in animal
growth and development
What is a nutrient?
• A substance that is necessary for an
organism to live and grow
• Nutritional requirements depend on:
– Stage of development
– Environmental conditions
– Genetic make-up
What is the most important
– Temperature regulation
– Chemical reactions
– Gives body form
Water Consumption in ONE day
• Compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen. Examples include starches and sugars.
– Energy from the breaking of bonds
• They form about 75% of all dry matter in plants.
• They are the CHIEF SOURCE OF ENERGY in
Types of Carbohydrates
– Grain, root crops, other plant materials
– Simple sugars (monosaccharides)
– Double sugars (disaccharides)
– Milk and fruit
– Plant cell walls and cellulose
– Fermented by bacteria in foregut of ruminant and hind
gut fermentors (require in their diet)
• Aids in the absorption of vitamin A (and other fat
soluble vitamins) from food and especially of
• Helps in the absorption of calcium.
• Increases the palatability of a ration.
• Increases the production energy of the ration.
• Is found as a component in every cell in the
• 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates
More energy in fats so why not
feed more fat than carbohydrates?
• Not enough protein uptake
– Young animals will not reach maximum
• Destroy certain fat soluble vitamins.
• Produce soft lard in hogs.
Protein needed for
– Cell construction
– Muscle formation and maintenance
– Fetal Growth
– Extra protein is broken down for body energy
Made Up of Amino Acids
Protein is EXPENSIVE
Amino acid requirements of animals
– The kind of animal.
– Body functions of the animal:
When feeding protein
• The amount of protein.
• The quality of protein.
• The compliment of amino acids in proteins
Ruminants vs Non-Runinants
Ruminants can make essential amino acids
Done by rumen bacteria
from simple forms of nitrogen
• Only used for Ruminants
• Protein substitute
– Source of nitrogen of rumen organisms to produce
• Used only in small amounts
• Location of Protein in feed material
• The "germ" is the part of the grain kernel
which usually contains available protein.
• Vitamins job in the body:
– regulate body functions
– keep body healthy
– develop resistance to disease
• Do not provide body with energy
• Fat Soluble- stored in fat
• Vitamin K is produced in animal’s intestinal tract
• Vitamin D is produced from the sun
• Water Soluble- dissolved by water
– Need to be consumed everyday
– Need in large amounts
– Calcium- causes bones and teeth to form properly
– Phosphorus- key ingredient in the body’s use of
– Iron- makes hemoglobin in red blood cells
– Iodine– Magnesium- lack causes muscle tremors and shakes
– Sodium and potassium- water balance, transfer
nutrients and waste through the cell membrane
– Need in small amounts