Horace Mann and the Moral Crusade for Common Schools

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Transcript Horace Mann and the Moral Crusade for Common Schools

Dealing with Immigrants
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Common schools adopted texts,
curriculum that were intended to
create ‘new Americans’ from
newly arrived immigrants
Approach and consequences?
Common School Reform in
the South
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Movement struggled to take
hold in South
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Possible reasons?
Difference in immigration patterns
 Demographics
 Economics
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Supporters used similar
arguments, shared goals as
those in the North
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Social conditions simply may have
Horace Mann and the
Moral Crusade for
Common Schools
Why Mann?
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Often considered the ‘father’ of
common school movement
Worked tirelessly as an
advocate of common public
schooling his entire adult life
Wide and complex variety of
arguments in favor of common
schooling
An Early Reformer
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Advocate of social justice for all
Favored economic development
as path towards improving the
living standard of all citizens
 Temperance
 Asylums for ‘insane’
 Alternatives to debtors’ prison
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Mann Becomes Secretary
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Becomes Secretary of
Education of Commonwealth of
Massachusetts (1837)
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First SecEd in history!
Devotes his life for the next 12
years to establishing common
schools as a means of
alleviating social and economic
division
Protestant Republicanism
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Concept of ‘Protestant
Republicanism’
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Built off values of Protestantism of early
settlers
Evolved to become a non-sectarian,
secular morality
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Avoided emphasis on any one version of
Protestantism
Broad Christian principles of morality
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Assimilation of various groups into
mainstream
The Role of the State in
Protestant Republicanism
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Major and necessary role!
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State influence was vital to ensure
economic and social reform
Local communities not always willing to
embrace change!
The Problem of Localism
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State and reformers unable to truly
eliminate sectarianism from local
community schools
Is it even possible (or right)?
Justify your Love (of the
common school)
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Why should wealthy support
common schools?
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5th Annual Report (1842)
Education creates:
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Safe and malleable workers
Less likely to drink or be
incompetent
More stable home life, more
likely to attend church
Reinforce the social
stratification!
Mann’s Argument
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Education prevents social
disorder and a disruption of the
system!
Respect for property
 Work ethic
 Recognition of roles in society
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Respect and docility for authority and
especially capitalism
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Capitalism equated with morality!
Property and Taxation
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Tenth Annual Report (1846)
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Attacked those wealthy who complained
about use of property taxes to support
schooling
Common schools benefit the entire
community, so demand the support of
the entire community!
Property as intended “for the benefit
and subsistence of the whole
race…,collectively.”
Right to an Education
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Mann associated the ‘pursuit of
happiness’ with the right of a
child to a quality education
Necessary not only for the
stability of society but also as
the duty of moral Christianity
10th Report led to adoption of
first true compulsory ed law in
Massachusetts
The Working Class Appeal
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Twelfth Annual Report
(1848)
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Schools as the only way to
prevent the division of
society based on class
Avoided domination of
capital and servility of labor
‘the great equalizer of the
conditions of men-the
balance wheel of the social
machinery’
How does this appeal
compare to the appeal to
the wealthy?
Opposing the Mann
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Basic Purpose of Moral
Education
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Was there truly a social crisis?
Differences in pedagogy
Seventh Annual Report (1843)
 All children are different and must
be guided, not forced, where they
need to be
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Boston schoolmasters demanded
emulation approach!
Challenging the Masters
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Corporal punishment
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Reading Instruction
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Mann: counterproductive!
Masters: maintained order and decorum
Mann: whole word and child centered
Masters: phonics and teacher directed
Mann viewed as inexperienced
dreamer
The True Appeal of Mann
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Women loved the Mann!
Mann’s approach and beliefs
appealed to an increasingly
feminized work force!
 Child centered, morally persuasive
education and discipline
 Appeal to the needs of the
community and society and
limitation on divisions
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