Transcript Slide 1

Module VI
Moral Reasoning in
Addiction Publishing
Ethical Traditions Applicable
to Publication Ethics
Ethics of virtue and character
Ethics of individual acts and rights
Social ethics in service of the common
Nuremberg Code: 1949
Helsinki Declaration 1964
• The scientist’s obligations to individual
subjects take precedence over any
obligations to the state
• There are different moral implications to
therapeutic and non-therapeutic research
• Informed consent of the subject is morally
• Only qualified persons should conduct
General Ethical Principles
Respect for persons
Autonomy and self-determination
Meaningful informed and voluntary consent
Maximizing benefits by promoting the wellbeing of subjects and society
Minimizing harm
Persons bearing burden of research should
receive appropriate benefits: subjects
should not be placed at risk merely because
of convenient access, their compromised
position, or ability to be manipulated.
Ethical principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of
Research (Belmont Report 1979)
1 Checklist for Analysis of Critical Incidents
1 Whose interests are involved; who can be harmed?
interests and
science /
Which interests, if any, are in conflict?
minimal / none
2 Application of Universal Values
Autonomy (freedom over one's own destiny)
Beneficence (do good; help others)
Non-maleficence (don't hurt anyone)
Justice (be fair; distribute by merit)
Obedience (obey legal and ethically permissible directives)
Conscientious refusal (disobey illegal or unethical directives)
Gratitude (pass good along to others)
Competence (be knowledgeable and skilled)
Stewardship (use resources wisely)
Honesty and candor (tell the truth)
Fidelity (keep your promises)
Loyalty (don't abandon)
Diligence (work hard)
Discretion (respect confidence and privacy)
Self-improvement (be the best that you can be)
Restitution (make amends to persons injured)
Self-interest (protect yourself)
Other culture-specific values
3 What Laws, Standards, Policies, Practice
Guidelines, Historical Practices should
Guide us in this Situation?
Copyright laws
 Review Board/Ethics Committee standards
 Professional policy documents
Toward a Moral Compass
– Do no harm
– Benefit the participant
The scientific community
– Transparency
– Honesty
– Accuracy
Procedures to Prevent or Resolve
Moral Dilemmas
Ethical review
Risk-benefit analysis
Informed consent
Peer review
Uniform requirements for attributing
authorship credits
• Professional ethics: ISAJE Guidelines
Risk/Benefit Analysis
Age, gender, socioeconomic status
Current or prior substance abuse problem
Family history and other indicators of risk
Medical and psychological status
Availability of backup services
Provisions for de-briefing of subjects
Formal and informal coercion to participate
Responsible Performance of Research
• Choice of research question
• Research design to avoid subjectivity
and minimize bias
• Unbiased collection of data
• Data management, storage, retrieval
and ownership
• Analysis of data
Reporting of Findings
Review of literature and citation procedures
Crediting previous work
Interpretation of findings
Sharing research materials, data and
• Duplicate and fragmented publication
• Avoidance of premature reporting or
 Reporting in the public media