Chapter 4- Cell Processes

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Transcript Chapter 4- Cell Processes

Intro to Ecology, ATP,
Plant Anatomy,
Photosynthesis, and
Cellular Respiration
By: Mrs. Stahl
Biology
Unit Layout
 Background knowledge
 Energy- where does it all come from?
 Review of Ecological Terms
 Food webs, food chains, and the transfer of energy
in ecosystems. All starts with sunlight and plants.
 ATP and ADP processes
 Photosynthesis
 Anatomy and functions of a plant.
 Process of photosynthesis and the importance of the
chloroplast.
 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
 Bringing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration and
the relationship they have together.
How do we get our
energy?
 Chemical energy- starts with the
sun!
Two Main Sources of
Energy:
 Lipids
 Carbohydrates
Energy is only
useable after it is
broken down by a
series of chemical
reactions
Energy…………
•Energy for living things comes from food.
•Originally, the energy in food comes from the
sun and travels up the food web or food chain.
Let’s review some
terminology!!
 Ecology- The study of living things and
their surroundings.
 Organism- individual living thing.
 Species- a group of organisms that can
reproduce together and produce fertile
offspring. Ex- humans are the same
species.
 Population- group of the same species.
Ex- A group of bottlenose dolphins.
 Community- group of different
species living together. Exampledeer, rabbits, and birds.
 Ecosystem- Made up of both biotic
and abiotic factors. Example- rocks,
water, deer, rabbits
 Biome- A region or area that is
defined by the climate and plants
that grow there. Example- Tropical
Rain Forest.
 Biosphere- Planet Earth
 Biodiversity- Variety of life
 Abiotic- Non-living things. Ex- water, sunlight,
rocks
 Biotic-Living things. Ex- Plants and animals
 Keystone Species- species that keeps an
ecosystem in check / holds it together.
Example- Sea otters keep the sea urchin
population in check so that they don’t eat all
the kelp (algae).
 Producers / Autotrophs- make their own
food via sunlight. Example- Plants
 Consumers / Heterotrophs- rely on others
for food. Example- Animals
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Types of Consumers
 Herbivores- Eat only plants
 Carnivores- Meat eaters
 Omnivores- Eat plants and animals
 Detritivores- Eat detritus or dead
organic matter.
 Decomposers- Breakdown dead
organic matter into simpler
compounds.
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Detritivores &
Decomposers
Energy Flow
 In ecosystems, energy has to flow
from one organism to another, and
it does this through food chains
and food webs, starting with the
sun and plants!
Food Web
 Network of feeding relationships
between trophic levels in an
ecosystem.
Arrows point in the direction
which the energy is flowing.
Food Chains
 Shows the feeding relationships for
a single chain of producers and
consumers.
Rabbit eats the grass and the hawk eats the rabbit.
How does the energy from the
sun flow through an ecosystem?
 Trophic levels
 Trophic levels are nourishment levels in a
food chain.
 Example: Producer-> Herbivore (Primary
Consumer)->Carnivore (Secondary
Consumer) = 3 Trophic levels
 Carnivores are the highest, herbivore are
second, and producers are the first.
Break it down further…
– Primary consumers are herbivores that eat
producers.
– Secondary consumers are carnivores that
eat herbivores.
– Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat
secondary consumers.
– Omnivores, such as humans that eat both
plants and animals, may be listed at
different trophic levels in different food
chains.
Trophic Levels
Shark
Triggerfish
Shrimp
Plants, algae,
phytoplankton
How does the energy get
distributed from trophic level to
trophic level?
 We know that ecosystems get their
energy from sunlight, which then
provides the energy for
photosynthesis to occur. That energy
then flows up the food chain.
 The amount of energy that gets
transferred from trophic level to
trophic level is 10% = Biomass
5
tertiary
consumers
secondary
consumers
primary
consumers
5000
Carnivores eat
herbivores and
more energy is
lost
500,000
Herbivores
eat plants but
burn some
energy in the
process
Energy
given off
as heat
producers
producers
5,000,000
Producers
use 100% of
energy from
the sun
How does life continue?
 The sun pumps more energy into
the plants allowing life to carry on.
How do organisms lose
energy?
 Metabolism
 Maintaining homeostasis- keeping your
body at normal temperature
 Mating, finding food, resting, movement,
growth,
 The same way we use energy so do other
organisms. That’s why we have to
continuously eat.
 Unused material = excreted as waste
Some fun review!
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=WLk-9ib0OVA
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=GUY_-LK_lOc
ATP AND ADPOUR MAIN ENERGY
CURRENCY
phosphate removed
ATP- Adenosine
Triphosphate
 Molecule that transfers energy
from the breakdown of food
molecules to cell processes.
Starch molecule
Glucose molecule
Cells use ATP to:
1. Carry energy
2. Build molecules
3. Move materials by
active transport
ATP is made up of:
Sugar ribose
Adenine
Three Phosphates
ATP has 3 phosphate
groups:
Third bond is unstable, so it
is easily broken
When the 3rd is removed,
energy is released and ADP
is formed.
How is ATP made?
Breakdown of sugars
Starch molecule
Glucose molecule
How are sugars made?
By capturing energy
from sunlight and
changing it into chemical
energy stored in sugars.
How does ATP work ?
 Step 1- The energy carried by ATP is released
when a phosphate group is removed from the
molecule. The third bond is unstable and is
easily broken.
 Step 2- Reaction takes place and the energy is
released for cell functions, meaning the third
phosphate fell off.
 Step 3- ATP (high energy) then becomes ADP
(lower energy molecule) because it just lost a
phosphate.
 Step 4-The molecules get broken down and
energy gets added.
 Step 5- Phosphate is added and it’s back to
ATP!
phosphate removed
What is needed to change
ADP into ATP?
 Large group of complex proteins
and a phosphate
Why is this important?
 The foods that you eat do not contain
ATP directly
 The food needs to be digested and
broken down chemically
 Everything that you eat has a different
calorie amount (measures of energy),
therefore different foods produce
different amounts of ATP.
 The number of ATP produced depends on
what you eat- Carbohydrates, proteins,
or lipids.
Swallow your food and then
digestion takes place (NOT
THAT FAST OF COURSE).
Does each type of food have the
same amount of calories?
- NO!!!
- Different foods have a
different amount of calories,
therefore provide different
amounts of ATP.
Carbohydrates
 Carbohydrates are not stored in
large amounts in your body
because they are the most
commonly broken down molecule.
 The breakdown of glucose yields
36 ATP.
 Carbohydrates DO NOT provide
the body with the most ATP. Lipids
do!
Lipids
 Store the most energy, about 80%
of the energy in your body.
 When they are broken down they
yield the most ATP, 146 ATP
Proteins
 Store about the same amount of
energy as carbohydrates, but they
are less likely to be broken down
to make ATP.
 The amino acids that cells can
break down to make ATP are
needed and used to build new
proteins.
Summary
 The number of ATP molecules
depends on the number of
carbohydrates, lipids, or proteins
broken down.
 The organic compound most
commonly broken down to make
ATP = carbohydrates.
Fun Video
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=V_xZuCPIHvk
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=xUpuuL24NiQ
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=XI8m6o0gXDY
We know that plants use
photosynthesis, but what
about organisms that live
in the deep sea, where
there isn’t any sunlight?
Chemosynthesis
 Some animals don’t
need sunlight &
photosynthesis as a
source of energy.
 Chemosynthesisprocess by which
organisms use
chemical energy to
make their food.
 Example- Deep
Ocean Hydrothermal
Vents.
https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=XotF9fzo4Vo
Do plants need ATP?
 YES!!!!!!
 Plants make their own food
through photosynthesis where
they breakdown sugars -> ATP
Photosynthesis
Defined as the process that
captures energy from sunlight to
make sugars that store chemical
energy.
Location- Chloroplast of plant
cells.
Photosynthesis
Chloro= Green
chloroplast
Phyll= Leaf
Plast = Molded
leaf cell
leaf
Chloroplast
Leaf
Cell
Leaf
Anatomy of a Flower
Female Parts
 Female parts ->Pistil, which is made up
of the stigma, style, ovule, and ovary.
 Stigma- Sticky portion that catches the
pollen.
 Style- tube that allows sperm / pollen to
be transported.
 Ovary- becomes the fruit
 Ovule- where the seed develops
Male parts
 Male Parts: Stamen- male parts are
made up of the anther and the filament.
 Anther- Produces the pollen
 Filament- Support tube for the anther
 Sepals- green, tough region that protects
the flower before it opens.
 Receptacle- hard, base of the flower,
bears the organs of the flower
 Stem- support, transports water and
nutrients
 Petals- scented and colored to attract
pollinators
Two Types of Seed Plants
Angiosperms
 Reproduce with
structures called
flowers and fruits.
 Brightly colored /
highly scented
 Attract animals->
transported from
place to place via
pollination, feces,
water, and wind
Gymnosperms
 Conifers- cone bearers
like pine trees.
 Naked seeds that
aren’t enclosed in a
fruit.
 Needle shaped leaves
with a protective
cuticle.
 Rely on wind for
pollination.
Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Leaves
 Major site of photosynthesis / food
production.
 Minimize water loss by collecting water
and transpiration.
 Take in carbon dioxide and produce
oxygen through the stomata.
 Stomatas are tiny pores in the leaf.
 Protects stems and roots with shade
and shelter.
Basic Structure
 Blade- collects the sunlight
 Petiole- stem that holds the leaf
blade up.
Upper portion / Top of the
leaf
 The tissue mesophyll, contains
most of the chloroplast and is
where the majority of
photosynthesis takes place.
Bottom portion of the leaf
/ underside
 Has the stomata and is the site of
transpiration and gas exchange.
 Guard cells surround each stomata and
open and close by changing shape.
 Day- stomata is open, allowing the
carbon dioxide to enter and water to
evaporate.
 Night- closed
Guard Cells
 Modified epidermal cells that are
photosynthetic and they open and close
the stomata.
 Potassium ions accumulate in the guard
cells and when there is a high
concentration of K+ it causes water to
flow into the cells. When the plant is full
of water, the guard cells plump up and
open the stomata.
Factors that affect the
stomata and guard cells
 Temperature, humidity, hormones,
and the amount of carbon dioxide
in the leaves tells the guard cells
to open and close
4 Types of Plant Tissues
 1. Ground Tissue
 2. Dermal Tissue
 3. Vascular Tissue
 4. Meristematic Tissue
Ground Tissue:
most common and they
differ based on their cell
walls- 3 Types
1. Parenchymal
2. Collenchymal
3. Sclerenchymal
Parenchymal Cells
 The most common
plant cell typemesophyll
 Cell walls store and
secrete starch, oils and
water
 Help heal wounds to
the plant
 Have thin, flexible walls
Collenchyma Cells
 Provide support to a growing plant
 They are strong and flexible.
 Celery strings are strands of
collenchyma.
 They have unevenly thick cell walls.
Sclerenchyma cells
 Strongest, support, very thick cell walls
 Second cell wall hardened by lignin
 Die when they reach maturity
 Used by humans to make linen and rope
Dermal Tissue
 Covers and protects the outside
 Secretes cuticle of leaves
 Forms outer bark of trees= dead
dermal cells
 Epidermis= covers the surface, made
up of parenchymal cells
 Guard cells= surround the stomata
and has a cuticle that secretes a waxy
substance for protection.
Vascular TissueXylem & Phloem
Transports water, minerals,
nutrients, and organic
compounds to all areas of the
plant.
Made up of two networks of
tubes- xylem and phloem.
Phloem
 Carries the products of
photosynthesis through the plant via
active transport (products = oxygen
and glucose).
 Remember- PHLOEM IS FOR FOOD
 Part of the bark (at or near)
 Have little sieve tubes and plates
that help the fluid flow from one cell
to another.
Xylem
 Carries water and nutrients from
the roots to the rest of the plant.
 Found within the wood of the tree.
Tracheids- long, thin, overlapping
cells with tapered ends.
Vessel Members- wider, shorter,
thinner cell walls.
Meristematic Tissue
 Growth tissue
 Where cell division occurs
 Turns into ground, dermal, or vascular
 Apical Meristems- tips of roots and
stems-> primary growth occurs here.
 Lateral Meristems- secondary growth.
Increase the thickness of roots and
stems.
Seeds
 Monocots= one seed
 Dicots= two seeds
 Seed coat= protection
 Embryo
 Epicotyl- top, shoot tip
 Hypocotyl- attached to
the cotyledon, young
shoot
 Radicle- first organ from
the germinating seed->
becomes the root.
 Cotyledon or Endospermstores food for the
embryo
Environmental cues that
are required by the seed:
 Water, light, and temperature
 The seed is mature -> goes into a
dormant stage until all
environmental needs are met.
Germination allows the
seed to turn into a plant:
 1st- Water is absorbed
 2nd- Enzymes get triggered
 3rd- Chemical process= respiration
 4th- Water gets absorbed, causes the
seed to swell and the seed coat cracks.
 5th- Roots grow from the radicle and
anchor the seedling into the soil.
Hypocotyl grows to produce a young
shoot.
Roots and Stems
 Absorb nutrients
 Anchor the plant (hold it down)
 Store food
 They have specialized organs to
carry these out.
Root Organs
1. Epidermis- covers the outside
surface of the root
Has root hairs= increases surface
area and allows for more water to
be absorbed. They are constantly
being replaced.
2. Cortex- makes up most of the
root-> stores starch (sugars) in
the parenchymal cells.
3. Endodermis- tightly packed
ring of cells.
Has suberin, a waxy band that
surrounds each endodermis cell
in a barrier where water can’t
pass through called the
Casparian Strip-> controls the
movement of water and
minerals.
Root Growth
 Root Cap- tip, protects the apical
meristem where primary growth
occurs.
Stems
 Support leaves and flowers
 Move water and food
Fun Tree Rings
 Type of secondary growth
 Form due to uneven growth over the
seasons.
 Age of the tree is done by counting the
rings
 Lighter cell bands =spring growth
 Darker bands = later season growth
 During good growing seasons the rings
are thicker
Physiological Process
of Transpiration,
Photosynthesis, and
Cellular Respiration
Transpiration
 Evaporation of water from leaves
 Water is pushed up through the xylem by
root pressure created from water moving
up the soil to the plants root system and
into the xylem-> results in small droplets
of sap-> called guttation.
 Water is also pulled up through cohesion
through the xylem tissue-> creates a
negative pressure or tension from roots
to leaves.
Rate of Transpiration
 Slows in high humidity
 Accelerates or speeds up in low
humidity
 Increases with wind
 Increases with intense light=
increased photosynthesis and
water vapor