Chapter 4- Cell Processes
Chapter 4- Cell Processes
Intro to Ecology, ATP,
By: Mrs. Stahl
Energy- where does it all come from?
Review of Ecological Terms
Food webs, food chains, and the transfer of energy
in ecosystems. All starts with sunlight and plants.
ATP and ADP processes
Anatomy and functions of a plant.
Process of photosynthesis and the importance of the
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Bringing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration and
the relationship they have together.
How do we get our
Chemical energy- starts with the
Two Main Sources of
Energy is only
useable after it is
broken down by a
series of chemical
•Energy for living things comes from food.
•Originally, the energy in food comes from the
sun and travels up the food web or food chain.
Let’s review some
Ecology- The study of living things and
Organism- individual living thing.
Species- a group of organisms that can
reproduce together and produce fertile
offspring. Ex- humans are the same
Population- group of the same species.
Ex- A group of bottlenose dolphins.
Community- group of different
species living together. Exampledeer, rabbits, and birds.
Ecosystem- Made up of both biotic
and abiotic factors. Example- rocks,
water, deer, rabbits
Biome- A region or area that is
defined by the climate and plants
that grow there. Example- Tropical
Biosphere- Planet Earth
Biodiversity- Variety of life
Abiotic- Non-living things. Ex- water, sunlight,
Biotic-Living things. Ex- Plants and animals
Keystone Species- species that keeps an
ecosystem in check / holds it together.
Example- Sea otters keep the sea urchin
population in check so that they don’t eat all
the kelp (algae).
Producers / Autotrophs- make their own
food via sunlight. Example- Plants
Consumers / Heterotrophs- rely on others
for food. Example- Animals
Types of Consumers
Herbivores- Eat only plants
Carnivores- Meat eaters
Omnivores- Eat plants and animals
Detritivores- Eat detritus or dead
Decomposers- Breakdown dead
organic matter into simpler
In ecosystems, energy has to flow
from one organism to another, and
it does this through food chains
and food webs, starting with the
sun and plants!
Network of feeding relationships
between trophic levels in an
Arrows point in the direction
which the energy is flowing.
Shows the feeding relationships for
a single chain of producers and
Rabbit eats the grass and the hawk eats the rabbit.
How does the energy from the
sun flow through an ecosystem?
Trophic levels are nourishment levels in a
Example: Producer-> Herbivore (Primary
Consumer) = 3 Trophic levels
Carnivores are the highest, herbivore are
second, and producers are the first.
Break it down further…
– Primary consumers are herbivores that eat
– Secondary consumers are carnivores that
– Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat
– Omnivores, such as humans that eat both
plants and animals, may be listed at
different trophic levels in different food
How does the energy get
distributed from trophic level to
We know that ecosystems get their
energy from sunlight, which then
provides the energy for
photosynthesis to occur. That energy
then flows up the food chain.
The amount of energy that gets
transferred from trophic level to
trophic level is 10% = Biomass
more energy is
eat plants but
energy in the
use 100% of
How does life continue?
The sun pumps more energy into
the plants allowing life to carry on.
How do organisms lose
Maintaining homeostasis- keeping your
body at normal temperature
Mating, finding food, resting, movement,
The same way we use energy so do other
organisms. That’s why we have to
Unused material = excreted as waste
Some fun review!
ATP AND ADPOUR MAIN ENERGY
Molecule that transfers energy
from the breakdown of food
molecules to cell processes.
Cells use ATP to:
1. Carry energy
2. Build molecules
3. Move materials by
ATP is made up of:
ATP has 3 phosphate
Third bond is unstable, so it
is easily broken
When the 3rd is removed,
energy is released and ADP
How is ATP made?
Breakdown of sugars
How are sugars made?
By capturing energy
from sunlight and
changing it into chemical
energy stored in sugars.
How does ATP work ?
Step 1- The energy carried by ATP is released
when a phosphate group is removed from the
molecule. The third bond is unstable and is
Step 2- Reaction takes place and the energy is
released for cell functions, meaning the third
phosphate fell off.
Step 3- ATP (high energy) then becomes ADP
(lower energy molecule) because it just lost a
Step 4-The molecules get broken down and
energy gets added.
Step 5- Phosphate is added and it’s back to
What is needed to change
ADP into ATP?
Large group of complex proteins
and a phosphate
Why is this important?
The foods that you eat do not contain
The food needs to be digested and
broken down chemically
Everything that you eat has a different
calorie amount (measures of energy),
therefore different foods produce
different amounts of ATP.
The number of ATP produced depends on
what you eat- Carbohydrates, proteins,
Swallow your food and then
digestion takes place (NOT
THAT FAST OF COURSE).
Does each type of food have the
same amount of calories?
- Different foods have a
different amount of calories,
therefore provide different
amounts of ATP.
Carbohydrates are not stored in
large amounts in your body
because they are the most
commonly broken down molecule.
The breakdown of glucose yields
Carbohydrates DO NOT provide
the body with the most ATP. Lipids
Store the most energy, about 80%
of the energy in your body.
When they are broken down they
yield the most ATP, 146 ATP
Store about the same amount of
energy as carbohydrates, but they
are less likely to be broken down
to make ATP.
The amino acids that cells can
break down to make ATP are
needed and used to build new
The number of ATP molecules
depends on the number of
carbohydrates, lipids, or proteins
The organic compound most
commonly broken down to make
ATP = carbohydrates.
We know that plants use
photosynthesis, but what
about organisms that live
in the deep sea, where
there isn’t any sunlight?
Some animals don’t
need sunlight &
photosynthesis as a
source of energy.
Chemosynthesisprocess by which
chemical energy to
make their food.
Do plants need ATP?
Plants make their own food
through photosynthesis where
they breakdown sugars -> ATP
Defined as the process that
captures energy from sunlight to
make sugars that store chemical
Location- Chloroplast of plant
Plast = Molded
Anatomy of a Flower
Female parts ->Pistil, which is made up
of the stigma, style, ovule, and ovary.
Stigma- Sticky portion that catches the
Style- tube that allows sperm / pollen to
Ovary- becomes the fruit
Ovule- where the seed develops
Male Parts: Stamen- male parts are
made up of the anther and the filament.
Anther- Produces the pollen
Filament- Support tube for the anther
Sepals- green, tough region that protects
the flower before it opens.
Receptacle- hard, base of the flower,
bears the organs of the flower
Stem- support, transports water and
Petals- scented and colored to attract
Two Types of Seed Plants
flowers and fruits.
Brightly colored /
place to place via
water, and wind
Conifers- cone bearers
like pine trees.
Naked seeds that
aren’t enclosed in a
Needle shaped leaves
with a protective
Rely on wind for
Major site of photosynthesis / food
Minimize water loss by collecting water
Take in carbon dioxide and produce
oxygen through the stomata.
Stomatas are tiny pores in the leaf.
Protects stems and roots with shade
Blade- collects the sunlight
Petiole- stem that holds the leaf
Upper portion / Top of the
The tissue mesophyll, contains
most of the chloroplast and is
where the majority of
photosynthesis takes place.
Bottom portion of the leaf
Has the stomata and is the site of
transpiration and gas exchange.
Guard cells surround each stomata and
open and close by changing shape.
Day- stomata is open, allowing the
carbon dioxide to enter and water to
Modified epidermal cells that are
photosynthetic and they open and close
Potassium ions accumulate in the guard
cells and when there is a high
concentration of K+ it causes water to
flow into the cells. When the plant is full
of water, the guard cells plump up and
open the stomata.
Factors that affect the
stomata and guard cells
Temperature, humidity, hormones,
and the amount of carbon dioxide
in the leaves tells the guard cells
to open and close
4 Types of Plant Tissues
1. Ground Tissue
2. Dermal Tissue
3. Vascular Tissue
4. Meristematic Tissue
most common and they
differ based on their cell
walls- 3 Types
The most common
plant cell typemesophyll
Cell walls store and
secrete starch, oils and
Help heal wounds to
Have thin, flexible walls
Provide support to a growing plant
They are strong and flexible.
Celery strings are strands of
They have unevenly thick cell walls.
Strongest, support, very thick cell walls
Second cell wall hardened by lignin
Die when they reach maturity
Used by humans to make linen and rope
Covers and protects the outside
Secretes cuticle of leaves
Forms outer bark of trees= dead
Epidermis= covers the surface, made
up of parenchymal cells
Guard cells= surround the stomata
and has a cuticle that secretes a waxy
substance for protection.
Vascular TissueXylem & Phloem
Transports water, minerals,
nutrients, and organic
compounds to all areas of the
Made up of two networks of
tubes- xylem and phloem.
Carries the products of
photosynthesis through the plant via
active transport (products = oxygen
Remember- PHLOEM IS FOR FOOD
Part of the bark (at or near)
Have little sieve tubes and plates
that help the fluid flow from one cell
Carries water and nutrients from
the roots to the rest of the plant.
Found within the wood of the tree.
Tracheids- long, thin, overlapping
cells with tapered ends.
Vessel Members- wider, shorter,
thinner cell walls.
Where cell division occurs
Turns into ground, dermal, or vascular
Apical Meristems- tips of roots and
stems-> primary growth occurs here.
Lateral Meristems- secondary growth.
Increase the thickness of roots and
Monocots= one seed
Dicots= two seeds
Seed coat= protection
Epicotyl- top, shoot tip
Hypocotyl- attached to
the cotyledon, young
Radicle- first organ from
the germinating seed->
becomes the root.
Cotyledon or Endospermstores food for the
Environmental cues that
are required by the seed:
Water, light, and temperature
The seed is mature -> goes into a
dormant stage until all
environmental needs are met.
Germination allows the
seed to turn into a plant:
1st- Water is absorbed
2nd- Enzymes get triggered
3rd- Chemical process= respiration
4th- Water gets absorbed, causes the
seed to swell and the seed coat cracks.
5th- Roots grow from the radicle and
anchor the seedling into the soil.
Hypocotyl grows to produce a young
Roots and Stems
Anchor the plant (hold it down)
They have specialized organs to
carry these out.
1. Epidermis- covers the outside
surface of the root
Has root hairs= increases surface
area and allows for more water to
be absorbed. They are constantly
2. Cortex- makes up most of the
root-> stores starch (sugars) in
the parenchymal cells.
3. Endodermis- tightly packed
ring of cells.
Has suberin, a waxy band that
surrounds each endodermis cell
in a barrier where water can’t
pass through called the
Casparian Strip-> controls the
movement of water and
Root Cap- tip, protects the apical
meristem where primary growth
Support leaves and flowers
Move water and food
Fun Tree Rings
Type of secondary growth
Form due to uneven growth over the
Age of the tree is done by counting the
Lighter cell bands =spring growth
Darker bands = later season growth
During good growing seasons the rings
Evaporation of water from leaves
Water is pushed up through the xylem by
root pressure created from water moving
up the soil to the plants root system and
into the xylem-> results in small droplets
of sap-> called guttation.
Water is also pulled up through cohesion
through the xylem tissue-> creates a
negative pressure or tension from roots
Rate of Transpiration
Slows in high humidity
Accelerates or speeds up in low
Increases with wind
Increases with intense light=
increased photosynthesis and