Transcript slides

1071 Battle of Manzikert heralds influx of
Turks into Asia Minor
27th November 1095 Pope Urban II
(p. 1088-99) preaches the First Crusade
at Clermont
Spring 1096 “Peasants’ Crusade” travels to
Sept/Oct 1096 Peasants’ Crusade massacred
by Saljuqs of Rum
Map Link: Europe and Muslim World c. 1097:
End 1097 “Official” crusading armies reach
Constantinople, are shipped across
1109 Crusaders complete conquest of much
of Levantine coast, with states set up
based at Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and
Map Link: The Crusader States:
1105 Kitab al-Jihad (Book of the Holy War)
dictated in public by ‘Ali ibn Tahir
al-Sulami (1039-1106)
1144 ‘Imad al-Din Zangi takes Edessa
1146 Zangi murdered by slave
1146-74 Reign of Nur al-Din
Jami‘ al-Nuri, Hama, Syria (bt. 1162-63);
Great Mosque, Aleppo (restored by Nur al-Din,
Map Link: Zangi’s Territories:
1148 Crusaders fail to take Damascus
1154 Nur al-Din takes Damascus
Jan 1169 Shirkuh becomes Fatimid vizier
1169-93 Reign of Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin)
1171 Death of Fatimid caliph al-‘Adid.
Saladin abolishes Fatimid caliphate
1174 Death of Nur al-Din
Map Link: Saladin’s Conquests:
1174-86 Saladin takes control of Syria
1187 Saladin destroys crusaders’ field army
1187-90 Saladin takes most of coast including
Map Link: The Battle of Hattin, 1187:
1189-92 Richard I and Saladin fight each other
to a standstill
Sept 1192 Peace agreement made. Richard
leaves Levant
4th March 1193 Death of Saladin
1193-1250 Levant ruled by Saladin’s family
until ousted by Mamluks, who sweep
crusaders off coast by 1291
1140s Almoravid Empire: Revolts in some
Muslim cities against Almoravids, with
rulers being ejected
Map Link: The Almoravids:
1121-30 “Reign” of Ibn Tumart as mahdi
of the muwahhidun (Almohads =
“unitarians”). Almohad position is mix
of Sunni, Shi‘ite, Traditionalist and
Mu‘tazilite elements
1130-66 ‘Abd al-Mu’min reigns as Almohad
1130-47 ‘Abd al-Mu’min takes N. Africa
from Almoravids, incl. Marrakesh
1147-48 ‘Abd al-Mu’min takes south-west
1160 ‘Abd al-Mu’min takes Ifriqiya
1170s ‘Abd al-Mu’min’s successors take
south-east Spain
Mosque of Hasan, Rabat, Morocco (bt. 1199)
Map Link: The Muslim West in the Early 13th Century:
1212 Almohads defeated at Las Navas de Tolosa
1269 Marinids take Marrakesh, complete
conquest of N. Africa
1275 All but Granada in Christian hands
1492 Christians take Granada
mudejars (mudajjan = “permitted to
remain”/“put to use”)
Map Link: Spain, 910-1492:
Ibn al-Khayyat al-Dimashqi (d. 1123/24)
Very little known about him
Poet in the service of an amir named ‘Adb
Ibn al-Qaysarani
(b. Acre 1085, d. Damascus 1154)
Initially from Caesarea, but fled Frankish
invasion to Damascus
Was superintendent of mechanical clocks
and poet, but satires offended ruler
Taj al-Muluk Buri (r. 1128-32). Had
to leave
Passed into service of Zangi, then Nur al-Din,
for both of whom wrote panegyrics
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Usama ibn Murshid ibn ‘Ali ibn Munqidh
From Shayzar in N. Syria
Lived in Shayzar until c. 1131, then served
Zangi for a few years before returning home.
Exiled from Shayzar again in 1138
Murshid (d. 1137)
Map Link: The Levant c. 1140:
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Joined court in Damascus, but became
embroiled in politics and had to leave in 1144.
Went to Egypt. Became embroiled in politics
and had to leave in 1154.
Joined court of Nur al-Din in Damascus
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Retired to Hisn Kayfa in c. 1164.
In 1174 allowed son Murhaf to persuade him
to join court of Saladin. Usama and Saladin
not really great friends after two years
Best known to historians for Kitab al-I‘tibar
(Book of Learning by Example)