The Crusades

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Transcript The Crusades

• 11th & 13th centuries, European Christians carried
out a series of military expeditions to take back the
holy land from the Muslims
• Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert &
threatened Constantinople
• Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to
the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem &
• Urban II called for crusades @ infidels
• Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews
Alexius I Asked
For Help and
Urban II Called
For the
First Crusade
First Crusades
• Mostly French knights = captured Antioch in 1098
& Jerusalem in 1099
• Massacred Muslim & Jewish inhabitants
• 4 Latin Crusader states were established that lasted
100 years
• 1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to
another Crusade
• The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of
another crusade
• Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade &
got the support of King Louis VII of France &
Conrad III of Germany
• 2nd Crusade was a total failure
• 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin
• 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third
Louis VII and Conrad III Respond
To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call
For a Second Crusade
Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem
Sparked the Third Crusade
• Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I
(Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of
Augustus of France
• Members of the 3rd arrived in the East by 1189 &
encountered problems
• Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river
• English & French had success with their naval fleets
against coastal cities, but failed as they moved
• Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to
allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
Philip II, Frederick I
And Richard I Responded
4th Crusade
• 6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope
Innocent III initiated the 4th crusade
• On their way to the East became involved a conflict
with the Byzantine Empire over the succession to
the Byzantine throne
• Crusaders diverted to Constantinople & sacked the
city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished in
1261 but was never as powerful
• Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190
years later
Osman: Founder
Of the Ottoman Turks
Sultan Mahmet II:
Conqueror of
Results of the Crusades
Increased wealth of Italian city-states like
Genoa and Venice.
Began Jewish persecution and genocide.
Started the breakdown of feudalism and
an increase in the power of kings.
Improved technology such as better ships
and maps, and skills in siege techniques
and weapons.