Greece vocab and notes - Warren County Schools

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Transcript Greece vocab and notes - Warren County Schools

• Tyrant-a person who takes power by force & rules
with total authority. A “harsh oppressive ruler”
• Colony-Settlement in a new territory that keeps
close ties to its homeland
• Socrates- Invented Socratic method. He asked
questions to force students to use their
• Plato - Socrates’ student. He did not feel
democracy is how you should run government.
He thought philosophers should run gov’t.
• Aristotle- He was a student of Plato’s. Plato
taught him the “golden mean”. The golden mean
• Parthenon-temple built to celebrate their
goddess Athena in Athens
• City-State - Town/city & surrounding
countryside, independent area
• Polis-Greek word meaning city-state
• Democracy - a government where all
citizens share in running the government
• Oligarchy- a government where few people
hold power (Sparta)
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• gods and goddesses
• Mythology-Greeks believed that
Greek Culture
Gods/Goddesses controlled nature and they
lived on Mt. Olympus (highest mountain in
The main god was Zeus-ruled the sky
• Poetry & Fables
Homer-(700 BC) wrote (long poems) epics
-ILLiad - about the Trojan Horse
Aesop (slave) wrote fables (have a moral point)
-Tortoise & Hare “slow and steady wins the race”
-Wolf in sheep’s clothing “appearances are often
• Drama
Culture cont. . .
comedy-ends happily
Tragedy-ends unhappily
• Arts/Architecture
made murals and columns
(3 types-leave space)
no picture-leave space
Philosophers - love of wisdom; studied history, political science
science, the
& math
1.) Pythagoras- he believed
universe followed the
same laws that govern music & numbers.
2.) Sophists- a group of people who believe there is no
right or wrong. We should use knowledge to improve
3.) Socrates-invented socratic method (teacher asks a
question to force the student to use their reasoning-still
used today)
4.) Plato-A student of Socrates. He did not feel
democracy is how you should run government,
philosophers should run gov’t
5.) Aristotle- A student of Plato. “GOLDEN MEAN” = do
1st Civilizations in Greece
Greece was divided into independent
polis’ because of mountains and seas
2000 B.C.
-1900 B.C.
worshipped earth
- They built a city on a hill
mother, used sun
-At the top was a palace, and on the
and stars to navigateside of the hill were estates.
- The nobles owned farms. The
nobles had slave farmers.
-The government kept track of
everyone’s wealth and made them
pay taxes with honey and livestock .
In 700 B.C.E. there was a boom in population, so many
people moved out to form colonies, and became specialists.
Oligarchy - few people rule (2 kings and 28
*Boys at age 7 had to go into training. They were
treated badly to make them tough.
*Age 20-60 they joined the Military - Started as oligarchy
You Win or you Die
Democracy“I would rather be carried back
people gathered in mass
on my shield than lose the
meetings to handle
*Sparta focused on
government matters.
their army, NOT
- 6000 people attended every
on trade.
- At age10
boys finished school
& became citizens
- 500 members of the council were chosen by lottery.
Persian Empire
Cyrus the Great  Darius  Xerxes (Persian
- When they conquered, they were very nice.
- Believed ONE God (Monotheism) would triumph
Persian Wars 2/2
Greek polis‘ clashed with Persians. King
Cyrus the Great decided the Greeks needed
to be stopped from interfering with Persian
Cyrus Died and Darius Became King
Marathon 490 B.C.
1 battle
Athens outnumbered 1/2. Persians waited on
beach for Athens (who hid in hills). Persians
loaded ships. (strongest man on first) Athens
attacked. Athens sent messenger 26 miles last
words “Victory” and died.
********DARIUS DIES**his son****XERXES IS
Thermopylae 486
2 battle (movie
2.) Xerxes wanted revenge on Greeks.
combined forces.
Leonidas-Sparta King in charge of land. Fought
Persians at Thermopylae “That is good news. We will
fight in the shade!” Traitor told Persians about back
path. Leonidas sent soldiers to safe place and a few
men stayed back to fight. Persian won
3.) Themistocles-Athenian general in charge of
sea. Wanted to cut off food supply to Persian
Army. Fought at the Salamis straight. Greek
ships were smaller and could turn around quicker
and rammed Persian ships. Greeks won the
battle on the water
*****Persian Army march to Athens (everyone
gone) Persians burned the city to the ground
Greeks united together (BIGGEST Greek Army
EVER!) Defeated Persians
Persian Empire weakened. *After Xerxes dies other
Kings raise taxes and spend money on themselves.
*common people rebelled *Brothers plotted against
each other.
330 B.C. Alexander The Great Invaded Persian
Empire and won
Athens fought Spartans for power (had different forms of
gov’t and didn’t trust each other)
Athens knew Sparta could beat them on land and
Athens would win on water but Sparta didn’t have a
Athens hid inside city walls. Better fighting than open
field. After one year sickness hit the city. Many people
died 1/3
Fought another 25 years. Sparta made deal with
Persians and Persians crushed Athenian Army
Peloponnesian War
431 B.C.
Outcome of Peloponnesian
Greeks could never unite after this
Spartans put in 30 men (thirty Tyrants) Oligarchy.
After a year people rebelled
Socrates gives hope “how do things work”
“does a good shepherd get rid of his sheepsstood up to the Oligarchies he was a gadfly
(questions/criticizes). Had young people
Phillip II
- 400 B.C. King of Macedonia, was from Greece
but lived in Macedonia. He admired Greeks but
he still conquered each city-state either by force or
persuasion. Once he conquered all of Greece he
went to attack Persia. Phillip II was murdered but
his son
- Alexander took over (he was 20 years old and
he died at 32)
Alexander The Great
- Conquered Persian empire and spread Greek
culture throughout southwest Asia
- He was a brave reckless warrior. He rode into battle
ahead of his men.
*He built the great trade city Alexandria.
*He conquered Persia in 334 B.C.