Transcript Communication Theory
And News Values
Mass communication is a powerful source in modern
society and radio, television, newspaper, magazines
etc. all shape the way we react to the world around
3 Functions of the mass media according to Harold
Surveillance of the environment
Correlation of the parts of the society in
responding to the environment
Transmission of the cultural heritage from one
generation to the next
What to do to make media messages successful?
Wilbur Schramm said that they must:
Be designed and delivered in ways that gain
Use language commonly understood by
communicator and audience
Arouse needs and present ways to meet them.
Do the propositions about mass media above
remain a valid description of the task facing today’s
media writers remembering that they were first
offered more than 50 years ago?
- The tendency to introduce inaccuracies in perceiving
what the writer or announcer said.
Why does this happen?
Denotative and connotative meaning:
Denotation: standard, descriptive names to things,
concept and ideas
Connotation: interpretations of meaning or value
2. Cognitive Dissonance:
- People can tolerate only so much emotional upset and
when information we receive is different from that which
we accept or with which we are comfortable, our mind
seeks a balance by rejecting or modifying the dissonant
Physical noise: anything that distorts the reception of
Semantic noise: confusion caused by using words or
phrases that the audience cannot understand or might
What Makes news?
Criteria of news value (news pegs) on which the
story is ‘hung’:
Immediacy is the most important criterion of news
Giving the local angle, telling about an event near
the readers, listeners of viewers, and explaining
how closely it touches their lives.
“names makes news”
The more people affected , generally the greater
is the news value
A universal news value, ex. Sporting events,
political contest etc.
Related to conflict.
People like to read about other people.
Feature treatment that emphasizes human nature
An unusual or strange aspect will help lift a story out
of the ordinary.
The most upbeat news and feature stories are often
about people accomplishing goals an making their
communities better places in which to live or work.