World War I - Watertown City School District
Transcript World War I - Watertown City School District
What was the First form of
Articles of Confederation. The Feds
were too weakin the US? What
was wrong with it?
During times of war some Civil
Liberties are limited. The president
to prevent treason
and antiwar sentiments
Corpus during the Civil War.
Congress can make laws that are
necessary and proper
What is the Elastic Clause?
-Freedom of the seas: Lusitania
-Democracy vs. Monarchy: Russians
Using your Book explain
what the following
13, 14, 15, 18, 19
What was the US Policy
during the early years of
World War I
Though the conflict started in Europe,
America had become a world power.
Soon, even the US could not stay neutral
Push for war
As the 20th century dawned, the world was ripe for war.
Several conditions were steering the world closer and closer:
- Alliance System
As tensions increase and fear of war grows, nations sign alliances pledging to
protect one another
Powder Keg and Spark
The Balkans were known as the Powder Keg of Europe because nationalism
between ethnic groups was causing tension. When the Archduke Franz Ferdinand
was assassinated the war started.
While Europe went to war, America stayed politically neutral. We did not want to
get into a costly and deadly war. However, the American public was distinctly
divided between the Central Powers and the Allies:
Most Americans were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants with ties to their old nations.
German Americans and Irish Americans sided with the Germans (Central Powers).
The rest of America sided with the British and French, who we felt loyalty to.
US peace and Trade
Before the War America traded
freely with all of Europe. A Naval
Blockade stopped trade with
Germany, but we still provided
Billions to the Allied forces.
Despite being neutral, many American business leaders urged the US to get
ready for war. They promoted preparedness, so the US would be able to aid
the Allies if necessary. As a result the Army increased its training and peace
time numbers. The Navy also increased its membership and battleship counts.
Though the US was neutral, images and
propaganda posters flooded America.
These Propaganda campaigns advertised
the war as a civilized Europe against the
In this poster the Germans
are compared to nonevolved apes, with a club
to destroy culture and
Freedom of the Seas
As the blockade of the North Sea continued,
the Germans were getting desperate to cut
Britain’s supply route. Using newly developed
submarines, known as U-Boats, the Germans
announced a War Zone around Britain. Any
enemy ships would be attacked.
What is the meaning of
this newspaper ad?
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The Germans were attacking any ships that flew Allied flags. Despite giving
warning, the Germans broke international laws that required all submarines to
surface before firing on enemy ships. This violated the US stance that neutral
nations have the right to travel and trade during war.
German Submarines had a habit of targeting civilian passenger ships. In 1915
they sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ships carrying many American
citizens. The USA threatened war but Germany backed down, agreeing to allow
civilians a chance to escape.
In 1917 German resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
Zimmerman Note 1917
After announcing the German U-boats
would resume unrestricted submarine
warfare, the US uncovered a telegraph
from the German foreign secretary,
George Zimmerman, to Mexico. In the
letter, Germany asked Mexico to attack
the US if we joined the war. In return,
the Germans would guarantee Mexico
reclaim its lost lands in Arizona, new
Mexico and Texas.
As the war dragged on into a stalemate, neither side was gaining any
advantages. The Russian Revolution overthrew the czar and adopted a
democratic government. Now, the
war seemed to be democracy vs
monarchy. If the US joined it would
be in the defense of democracy.
During March, 1917, the Germanys sank 5 American ships. By April 6, 1917 the
president was signing a Declaration of War, already approved by Congress.
Uncle Sam: “Hold the fort, for I am coming!”
Now that war was declared, America needed to mobilize. The Military general
recommended the US gather a force of 1 million men by 1918, and an additional 3
million by 1919. The question was, how would the men be gathered?
ready for war
In May 1917 Congress approved the Selective Service Act, a draft to call young men
into military service. During the Civil War the Draft had sparked riots and hatred for
President Lincoln. During World War I, the war to end all wars, American patriotism
was so high, few complained. By 1918, 2 million men had been drafted into the
American Expeditionary Force.
The Stalemate ends
The American troops provided much needed reinforcements for the allies. Soon,
the Allies were pushing Germany and the Central powers out of their trenches and
back towards Germany.
Remember, WWI was a
stalemate for much of
the war due to Trench
Warfare and improved
like artillery, machine
guns and tanks.
In all, the US lost approximately 51,000 men, far fewer than the millions lost by the
Europeans. Thousands more were injured physically and mentally by the war.
The War ends
On November 11, 1918, the Allies accept an armistice or ceasefire. The guns went
silent and the work on a peace treaty finally began.
Now that the United States was officially at war, life changed for the Americans. War
is costly, in human lives and resources. To ensure there was enough for the war
effort the Nation had to become involved in Total War, with all resources going
toward the war effort.
Total WarAll resources go to the
The War at Home: Liberty Bonds
To help finance the war, the government sold Liberty Bonds. Bonds can later be
redeemed for their original value plus interest. The Liberty Bonds created funds
directly for the War effort. In total the Liberty Bonds raised more than $20 Billion.
The War at Home: War Departments
Industrial factories were converted from consumer good production to military
grade supplies. To organize this hundreds of business men and women were hired:
-War Industries Board- gave out raw materials, told manufactures what and how
much to produce and fixed prices.
-War Trade Board- shut down businesses suspected of trading goods to the enemy
-War Labor Policies Board set wages, working hours and factory conditions
What is the message for each of these
The United States, led by President Hoover did not want to establish a
rationing system, or price controls on consumer goods. Instead, the US relied
on propaganda to get American citizens to cut back.
Daylight Savings Time
Daylight Savings Times, turning the clocks ahead by an hour for the summer,
helped to save fuel for the war effort. By increasing the amount of hours that
work could be done using sunlight, the nation was able to save fuel.
Thanks to the War, the Government now regulated businesses and even supported
Unions. The Unions were able to guarantee certain work hours, wages and safety.
Despite some “fixes” the businesses still influenced government decisions, and their
profits nearly tripled during the war years.
About 16% of male workers joined the military, leaving their jobs vacant. To fill the
gap millions of women worked in the factories. Their superb performance during
the war in the factories, saving food and reducing consumption eventually earned
women the right to vote (19th amendment)
With Patriotism at an all time high, many Americans expressed anti-German and
anti-immigrant feelings. Calls for quote restricts and anti-German propaganda
were everywhere. German books were burned, German was no longer taught in
schools and even sauerkraut was renamed “Liberty Cabbage”. Hamburgers
became liberty sandwiches.
Limited Civil Rights
During times of war the
government can limit civil
liberties and rights to protect
Espionage Act 1917
To prevent spies and anti-war propaganda, the Espionage Act of 1917 made it
illegal to interfere with the draft, sale of Liberty Bonds, and even allowed the
Postmaster to bar “treasonous” materials from the mail.
Sedition Act of 1918
To further prevent anti-war sentiment, the US made it a crime to speak or
publish anything “disloyal, profane, or abusive” about the United States.
Together, the Espionage and Sedition Acts sent 1,500 Americans to jail.
A Socialist and former presidential candidate, Debs was sentenced to 10 years in
jail for criticizing the American government and business leaders. His work’s
message was to resist Militarism. Debs argued the war was simply a fight among
Schenck v United States
Schenck, a member of an anti war group, urged men to avoid the draft and
war. He was arrested under the Espionage
Act for interfering with the draft.
Speech is not
limits. Ex: You cannot
in time of war, stating that Schenck’s words
shout ‘FIRE’ in a crowded theater.
presented a “clear and present” danger.
Clear and Present Danger…
The decision in Schenck v US created the Clear and Present danger doctrine.
The Court has the right to prevent words that would cause “ a clear and
Red Scare 1918-1919
In November 1917 a Communist Revolution took place in Russia. The
Communist system was hostile to American values and capitalism, and
freedoms. By 1918 an intense fear of communism swept America, and
communists were sought out for deportation.
Red Scare= Fear of
WWI and the Red Scare continued to increase Nativism. As a result there were far
fewer immigrants coming to America, especially from Eastern and Southern Europe.
WWI accelerated the migration of African Americans to northern cities. A crop
failure between 1910 and 1930 pushed many blacks to the north. With immigration
nearly stopped due to the war, about 1,500,000 African Americans moved to the
industrial north to work in factories. Unfortunately, Racism grew along with African
American northern population.
The “Clear and Present Danger” ruling in the
Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States
(1919) confirmed the idea that
a. Prayer in public schools is unconstitutional
b. Racism in the United States is illegal
c. Interstate commerce can be regulated by state
d. Constitutional rights are not absolute
From 1914 to 1916, as WWI raged in Europe, Americans
were not able to remain neutral in thought as well as
action mainly because
a. United States membership in military alliances
required the nation to fight
b. United States newspaper encouraged a policy of
c. The warring powers interfered with the US right to
freedom of the seas
d. President Woodrow Wilson supported the war aims of
Germany and Austria-Hungary
President Woodrow Wilson’s statement “The world must
be made safe for democracy” was made to justify his
End US imperialism in Latin America
Support tariff reform
Send troops into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa
Ask Congress to declare war against Germany
What was a major reason for United States entry into
World War I?
a. To overthrow the czarist government of Russia
b. To keep Latin American from being attacked by
c. To maintain freedom of the seas
d. To break up the colonial empires of the Allies
“The most stringent protection of free speech would not
protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing
-Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
Which interpretation of the Bill of Rights does this statement
a. The needs of the government are more important than
b. Constitutional protection of liberty are not absolute
c. The Supreme Court can eliminate freedoms listed in the
Bill of Rights
d. The Bill of Rights does not safeguard individual liberties
Which situation was the immediate cause of the United
States entry into World War I in 1917?
The league of Nations requested help
The Maine was blown up in Havana Harbor
Nazi tyranny threatened Western democracy
German submarines sank United States merchant ships
President Woodrow Wilson played a major role in the European peacemaking
process. His proposal was known as the 14 points, which included:
-open, not secret, diplomacy
-freedom of the seas
-“Association of nations” to guarantee
Letting national groups
make their own political
The leaders of Europe had suffered far more than the US and were looking to be
repaid for their losses, territorial changes and blame placed on Germany. In the
end the Treaty of Versailles demanded the following from Germany:
-pay war reparations (repayments) to the allies
-Give up its military forces
-Cede lands to create Poland and Czechoslovakia
-give up overseas colonies
must accept the blame
for starting the war.
“Curious, I seem to hear a child weeping.
What is the
meaning of this
League of Nations
Though the Treaty of Versailles largely ignored the reasonable terms proposed in the
Fourteen Points. However, the treaty did set up the League of Nations. The league
was meant to solve political disputes diplomatically.
Isolationists in the Senate worried that joining the League of Nations would
involve the US in future European wars. When the Senate proposed changes
Wilson stubbornly refused.
When the senate refused the treaty again and again, Wilson went on a tour to
gain public support. He hoped that if the public was on board, they would write
to their politicians to approve the Treaty. The trip resulted in huge amounts of
stress, leading to a stroke for President Wilson.
What’s the problem?
Ultimately the US did not sign the
Treaty of Versailles so we did not join
the League of Nations
Washington Naval Conference
In 1921, President Warren G. Harding hosted
national leaders from Great Britain, France, Italy
and Japan to discuss ways to limit arms. Together
the nations agreed to set limits on the number of
warships each nation could have. They also
pledged to keep peace in Asia and protect the
independence of China. However, the group
failed to establish any means of enforcement.
Reduction of a
nation’s arms an
Kellogg Briand Pact
As the spirit of peace continued to spread across the world, 15 nations met in
Paris in 1928. Together they signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which outlawed
war, except in self defense. In all 60 nations signed the pact, but enforcement
policies weren’t included.
Reparations and US Loans
Before the war, the United States had been a debtor nation, meaning it owed
more money then others owed back. However, during the war the US had been
the source of major loans to the European nations. Many European nations
struggled to pay back the loans due to reduced trade and rebuilding costs.
To help European nations pay back their loans, the United States lent Germany
money so that it could make war reparations to the Allies. In return the Allies
would make payments on their war debts.
The United States played an integral part during WWI. Despite being neutral the
US contributed to the war by providing military supplies to the Allies. After
Germany resumed unrestricted Submarine Warfare, the US joined the War to
defend Democracy and freedom of the seas. The US troops turned the tide of the
war, and earned the US a place at the peace negotiations. In Paris, Woodrow
Wilson pushed the Fourteen Points which solved many of the issues that led to
WWI. However, the US rejected the treaty because of the League of Nations,
fearing it would involve the US in future European wars. Following WWI nations
around the world promoted peace, even working together to on the KelloggBriand Pact and Washington Naval Conference.