Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

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Transcript Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

Nationalism Triumphs in
Chapter 10
Nationalist Revolution-Introduction
• Enlightenment ideas + nationalism create
• Nationalism1. The belief that people’s greatest loyalty
should not be to a king or empire but to a
nation of people who share common culture
and history.
2. Pride or feeling of superiority in one’s country
Revolution1. The overthrow of one government and its
replacement with another
2. Many territories revolt against empires
• Along with different political groups
Nationalism emerges in Europe.
• People wanted to create their own
Nation State and separate from empire
• Nation states would include people that
share the same culture, history, language
and geographic space
• Most nationalists were from the liberal
groups in Europe.
Europe faces Revolutions
• Nationalism will cause some countries to
revolt and separate from empires and
• Nationalism will cause other territories in
Europe to unite into a new country.
(Examples-Italy, Germany)
• So what’s the point?
A: Nationalism helps shape the modern
world by influencing revolutions and new
Section 1
Building a
Unification of Germany
• Germany was the last of the great
European powers to achieve complete
political unity. 
• In 1815, 39 independent German states
existed. By 1871, however, the German
states–excluding Austria and
Switzerland– had united into a single
Unification of Germany
• The Congress of Vienna had created
the German Confederation in 1815 as
a buffer against possible future
French expansion.
• The German Confederation loosely
tied together the numerous German
states with a diet, or assembly, sitting
at Frankfurt
Unification of Germany
of German
Territories are
not yet
combined into
one united
Unification of Germany
• People looked to Prussia to help unite
• Wilhelm I came to power in Prussia
• Wilhelm I appointed Otto Von Bismarck
as Prime Minister.
• Both leaders believed in a strong
government and military to unite
German states under Prussian control.
Otto Von Bismarck
He became prime minister
in 1862, then rose to
Otto Von Bismarck.
Bismarck was determined
to unite Germany under
Prussian rule and used a
policy of “blood and iron”
to do so.
Realpolitik- politics
based on needs of the
Unification of Germany
• 1871 William I became Kaiser or emperor of
German states
Otto Von
Wilhelm I
Unification of Germany
• Bismarck used wars to achieve
unification of Germany.
Wars that helped to unite Germany
• 7 Weeks War -Prussia vs. Austria
• Franco Prussian War-Prussia vs. France
• War against Denmark
Leaders in many German states urged
William I of Prussia to take the title
Kaiser (emporer).
• German nationalists celebrated the
beginning of the second Reich, the
second German empire after the Holy
Roman Empire.-Germany independent by
• Bismarck wrote a constitution and set up
a two-house legislature. However, real
power remained with the emperor and
Skip Section 2
Section 3
Unifying Italy
1861 Unification of Italy
• Before the 1800’s Italy was broken into small
city states headed by monarchs
• People spoke the same languages but had not
been united since the Roman Empire
• Groups of people ( Giuseppe Mazzini’s Young
Italy Group)come together unite Italian states
• Unification would bring together cultural
barriers, transportation barriers and
language barriers.
Nationalism leads to a united Italy
• Nationalism leads to a united Italy:
Desire for a politically united
country caused Italians to
overthrow Austrian rule.
Nationalists look to Sardinia as a
unifying force
Fighting starts and many people
overthrow their rulers in city
states and unite with Sardinia to
become the nation of Italy.
• By 1861 Victor Emanuel II was
crowned king of Italy
Emanuel II
Why do you think Italian
unification was difficult?
Section 4
Nationalism Threatens Old EmpiresAustrian and Ottoman Empires
Nationalism in Austria-Hungary
• Austrian empire contained more than 11
different national groups.
• Austrian Empire included much of Balkan
region. Austrian Empire lacked national
and cultural unity.
• Revolutionary movements started to
spread in the Austrian Empire because
the different Nationalist movements were
influenced by France’s democratic
Revolution in 1848.
Hapsburgs Decline
• The ruling family in
Austria were the
Hapsburgs. They were
the oldest ruling family
in Europe
• Austria started to
industrialize and had
many social problemsovercrowded cities and
unhappy people in poor
working conditions
• __________________
groups were growing
Revolution in Austrian Empire
• Different nationalist groups
were fighting within Austrian
Empire for their own
nationality's purpose.
• Example-Hungarian
nationalists revolted from the
Austrian Empire. The Austrian
Empire crushed revolt but
decided to make the Austrian
Empire into AustriaHungary_.
• Result-Austria-Hungary
Powder Keg in the Balkans
• Different slavic nationalist groups in the
Balkans wanted political independence.
• Fighting among nationalist groups
threatened the unity of Austria-Hungary
and would end up being the spark that
set off WWI.
• See page 345
• Result-the Austrian Empire becomes
weak during the late 1800’s.
Ottoman Empire Collapses
• The ottoman Empire also collapsed during the
• The Ottomans were forced to grant equal
citizenship to all people under their rule by the
British and French. European countries did not
like the idea of Muslims controlling Christian
people in Europe.
• Ottomans slowly lost territory and by 1918 the
empire was gone
• The Ottoman Empire became what is present day
Section 5
Reform and Reaction in Russia
Nationalism in Russia
 1800’s Russian Empire stretched from Europe to the
Pacific Ocean.
 Russian Empire included many nationalities and over 60
different languages
 Oppressive autocratic government (1 person ruler)
 Russia enacts reform in order to industrialize
(ends serfdom and this frees up workers for industry)
 Large working class grew unhappy with working and
living conditions
 Growth of Radical movements to get rid of the old type
of government under the czar.
 The people rebel against the Czar’s policy of Russification
• Making the citizens Russian
through forced language,
education and religion
Result of Nationalism in Russia
• Separate groups have their own ideas of
how Russia should be governed making
up several different nationalist groups
• Many radical movements and attempts
for revolt. Example-Poland
• Russia’s government was filled with
reaction and upheaval during the late
1800’s into the 1900’s.
Nationalism in Russia
• One radical group that looked after the
working class were the Bolsheviks.
• Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin
and his ideas were based on Karl Marx
teachings. ( this group would eventually
overthrow the czar, lead the Russian
Revolution, and establish communism in
City state of
Sardinia led
Nation States
Nation States
Nation States
• Ottoman
• Austrian