Rise of Austria and Prussia Chapter 17.4

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Transcript Rise of Austria and Prussia Chapter 17.4

Rise of Austria and
Chapter 17.4
The Thirty Years’ War
• By the early 1600s the Holy Roman
Empire has fallen into several hundred
small, separate states.
• The Holy Roman Emperor became an
elected position and had very little
power over the states princes
• Regional conflict also fuelled the Thirty
Years’ War
• North – Protestants (mainly Lutheran)
• South - Catholics
The Thirty Years’ War
• The war was both Political and Religious
• It began in Bohemia
(present day Czech Republic)
• When King Ferdinand of Bohemia (Hapsburg)
sought to suppress Protestants and assert
royal power over local nobles
• Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Empire
in 1619 and with the support of Spain and
Poland there was a fight to push back the
The Thirty Years’ War
• When Protestant states like Sweden and
the Netherlands heard of what was going
on in Bohemia Protestant troops were
sent to fight the Catholics
• However both Catholic and Protestant
rulers shifted sides when they would
benefit the most
• EX: Catholic France joined Lutheran Sweden
against the Catholic Hapsburgs
• Hapsburgs controlled Spain as well as Austria
The Thirty Years’ War
• Many roving armies of mercenaries
destroyed all things in their way
• Murder and torture were followed by
famine and disease which lead to
depopulation in much of central
• In 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia was
signed ending the Thirty Year’s War
Treaty of Westphalia
• France comes out smelling like a rose
• France gained land on both the Spanish front
and German Front
• Hapsburgs lose big
• Accept almost total independence of all Princes
in the Holy Roman Empire
• Leaves Germany divided into 360 separate
• Netherlands and the Swiss Federation won
recognition as independent states
Hapsburg Austria
• Even after the Thirty Years’ War the
Hapsburgs still wanted a strong nation
under them
• By the early 1700s the Hapsburg empire
included Germans, Slavs and others
• Hapsburgs allowed each to practice and
live as they did before. But the Hapsburgs
would step in when they saw fit
Maria Theresa
• Charles VI had no son and no women
has every controlled Hapsburg land
by herself
• Charles convinced many European
families into recognizing Maria right
to the throne. Many ignored that
promise after his death
• In 1740 the largest threat came from
Frederick II of Prussia
• This will become the 8 years war of
Austrian Succession
Rise of Prussia
• As Austria emerged as a strong
Catholic State, Prussia emerged as
an equally strong Protestant State.
• Under the leadership of the
Hohenzollern (HOH uhn tsahl ern)
family. Prussia began to build a large
and very strong army.
• Also the Hohenzollern families set
up a system of bureaucracy to
reduce the power of the local nobles
known as Junkers
Frederick William I
• “Prussia is not a state which
possesses an army, but an army
which possesses a state.”
• By 1740 Prussia was strong
enough to challenge Austria
• Frederick II – Frederick William
trained him as a military leader
• Frederick preferred to play the
flute and write poetry
Frederick II
• Frederick with the help of a friend were
going to flee the country. Frederick
William discovered these plans.
• Frederick William forced his son to watch
the beheading of his own friend.
• Fredericks military training was not lost
because in in 1740 the War of Austrian
Succession was started by him
Balance of Power
• As Austria and Prussia became more
powerful in just added two more
powers to Europe
• Many wars broke out across Europe
• The largest was the 7 Years’ War
• (we know it better as the French and Indian War)
• Was fought on 4 different continents
• Prussia, Austria, Russia, France and Britain
fought in Europe
• Britain and France fought in India, Africa and
North America
• Treaty of Paris ends the war and gives
England a huge Empire