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Chapter 23
Emergence of Industrial Society
Ms. Chattin
• Chinese riot in Milwaukee in 1889 –only 16 Chinese in the
entire state! The press claimed that Chinese laundrymen were
seducing American girls! Thought there was a ring transporting
girls to Chicago for forced marriages!!! 2 Chinese men were
arrested but the court wasn’t moving fast enough and the
people went out looking to lynch! The remaining Chinese soon
• Reflects Asian immigrants to the Americas, especially the US
(west railroads)
• Anxieties that people had from these contacts. By 1882
measures were taken to restrict Chinese immigration (lasted
until 1943).
• Anxiety over competition of labor and predatory sexual
• “Change is measure by befores and afters”
• Beginning of Industrialization
Forces of Change
• Intellectual Freedoms: Enlightenment
• Commercialization: ideals of socialization
and new classes forming like bourgeois and
manufacturer workers
• Population pressures
American Revolution
• British colonists in North America unhappy with taxes and
restrictions placed upon them by the government
• Taxes to pay for 7 Years War (felt it was colonists burden to pay
for) and restricted trade. Stamp Act of 1765 (tax on all documents
and pamphlets)
• Colonists were not represented and felt that the government
couldn’t make such laws without their voice “ no taxation without
• American Revolution started with rebels (terrorists) with the
Declaration of Independence in 1776 and a revolutionary
government and army
• Colonists successful due to sheer will and of course military
problems of the British and the assistance of the French!
• US won its freedom in 1789 and set up a constitution based on the
principles of the Enlightenment (checks and balances btw.
Branches of government, voting rights for certain people (most
advanced in the world). No change for slaves though 
The French Revolution and the
Napoleonic Era 1789-1815
French Revolution
• Dominated by traditional institutions
of: Monarchy, Church, and Aristocracy
vs.Poverty, Illiteracy, and Superstition
• American Revolution bankrupted
• A succession of poor harvest and
hunger led to revolts and economic
• Enlightenment ideas and Bad monarch
• Monarchs used loans to support war
activities and began taxing people
higher to cover the costs. Additionally,
took out more loans to pay for old
• King needed parliament to approve
new taxes and they wouldn’t b/c they
felt they were exempt b/c of their
noble status
• Poor Louis XVI inherited these
• Various reforms tried, but in 1788
Louis XVI called the Estates
General (feudal meeting of society).
3 estates: Church, King, and people.
3rd estate demanded a vote by head
rather than vote by estate (1st 2
estates out voted them even though
the 3rd estates represented 98% of
France!). They refused to work with
the 3rd estate on this issue and the 3rd
estate began meeting separatelycalled themselves the National
Assembly (after being locked out of
their normal meeting hall by the
King…met on a tennis court and
promised to create a new
• Press began covering moves of
National Assembly and people were
given hope!
• Louis XVI denied the National
Assembly and moved troops to
Versailles to enforce his will!
• In response the citizens of Paris
stormed the royal armory:
Bastille (July 14, 1789)
• They formed a citizen militia, the
National Guard, in support of the
National Assembly
• Soon other cities followed Paris
and other National Guards sprang
• Peasants continued to bear the
brunt of taxation and the National
Assembly and Bastille as an
aristocratic plot that threatened
needed reforms
• Peasants began spreading false
rumors of a great conspiracy:
Great Fear- manorial records and
landlord over thrown!
• October 5, 1789 a mob of women
marched to Versailles in protest
against to soaring prices of food
(women active in 1st stage of
• Women killed several of the
Royal Guard
• Forced Louis XVI to return to
Paris and he was taken prisoner
by revolutionary women
March on Versailles
• 1791 National Assembly
established a new constitution with
a limited monarchy
• Louis XVI had to accepted new
• Soon the King and his family
attempted to flee the kingdom to
join the counter-revolution. He
was caught and taken prisoner
• 1790 all monasteries…employees
of state and had to take an oath of
allegiance to the state
• Assault on the Church led to a
counter-revolution among
• The new constitutional monarchy
began with one major problem:
• It accepted the debt of the old
regime and was hopelessly in debt
• Inflation ravaged already
depressed economy
• Peasants began to riot due to
inability of government to
regulate prices
• In midst of economic disaster
the government declared war on
Austria in 1792
Outside interference stoking the
• August 27, 1791-Declaration
of Pillnitz
• Leopold II of Austria (bro. of
Marie Antoinette) and
Frederick William II of
Prussia promise to intervene
in France to protect the
monarchy ONLY if other
royal families from Europe
agree. Great Britain never
going to agree. But fueled
speculation of a great
aristocratic conspiracy in
Europe to halt the actions
that were taking place in
• Prussian manifesto-July
• Duke of
Brunswick,commander of
Prussian forces issued this
manifesto promising the
destruction of Paris if harm
came to the French royal
family. This only stiffened
support for the war and
distrust for the king
• France under Girondists
leadership declared war on
Austria (ally of Prussia)
April 20, 1792. They
believed the war would
preserve the revolution rom
domestic enemies. Acutally
only helped to radicalize the
revolution technically
leading it to what is referred
to as the second stage where
the constitutional monarchy
would be overthrown and
replaced by a republic!
• Women: March 1791 a
group of women lead by
Pauline Leon petitioned
the Assembly for the right
to bear arms and to fight
for the protection of the
revolution. Women
wanted to serve in the
National Guard as
well.Once the war began
some Frenchwomen did
enlist in the army and
served with distinction
September Massacres
• Early in September a crowd in Paris made its will
• The Paris Commune, committee that governed
Paris, after they stormed the Tuileries palace and
removed Louis XVI and the constitutional
monarchy from power turned its attention to Paris
jails and summarily executed or murdered about
1200 people. Many were aristocrats and priests,
but the majority were just simple criminals. The
crowd assumed they were counterrevolutionaries!
• The Paris Commune then compelled the
Legislative Assembly to call for the election by
universal male suffrage of a new assembly to write
a democratic constitution.
2nd Stage of Revolution
• 1792 the second revolution
began and equality was its most
important issue
• The popular movement of the
revolution began with the
storming of the Tuileries, or
King’s palace in Paris
• Sans-culottes wanted
government to be decentralized
with neighborhoods ruling
• A republic was announced in
• 1793 Louis XVI sent to the
• Girondins: more moderate
• Jacobins: more radical
• Beginning of the second
revolution the Jacobins took
power, leader was Maximilien
• Leader of the Committee of
Public Safety in 1793: 12 man
committee that ruled France
• Marie-Antoinette was later
placed on trial for all kinds of
charges including incest. She
was found guilty and killed.
• The monarchs had four child,
but two died at early ages.
• Louis-Charles was placed under
arrest and some believe
mistreated to the point of death
by being overworked, underfed,
and beaten. He died at the age
of 10 while in prison under the
revolutionaries control.
Louis XVI execution
Reign of Terror
• The Committee of Public
Safety under the
leadership of Robespierre
had to end internal
anarchy and fight external
• Reign of Terror 17931794: state repression
• Removed political rivals
through mass executions
• Christianity was replaced
by religion of reason.
Wanted to create a new
moral universe
A contemporary English cartoon typifying the attitude towards the French Revolution
End of Revolution/ Napoleon Bonaparte
• Thermidorian Reaction:
Robespierre undermined
support needed to stay in power
by attacking both Left and
• Murder of Marat (Newspaper
• Began to break with the popular
• He was branded a traitor and
guillontined in 1794
• After fall of Robespierre and
Jacobins price controls were
abolished leading to many
hardships was branded a traitor
and guillontined in 1794 (1st
tried to shoot himself)
• After fall of Robespierre and
Jacobins price controls were
abolished leading to many
• Directory: government that took over
France after the fall of Robespierre
• The Revolution gave Napoleon access to
new positions because he was not born as
a noble
• Involved in foreign campaigns: Italy and
Egypt. His “successes” brought him much
fame and support
• 1799 Napoleon joined the plot to
overthrow the Directory
• After the coup d'état, a new form of the
Republic was declared in France, and
executive power was given to three
• Napoleon was declared First Consul, and
possessed most of the power in gov.
• He quickly took advantage of his situation
and named himself First Counsul for Life
in 1802. In 1804, France again became a
monarchy when Napoleon crowned
himself the Emperor of France
Napoleon Bonaparte
• His popularity as First Consul
flowed from his military and
political success
• He was also popular for
reestablishing Catholicism as
the religion of France
• Warfare represented his entire
• 1803 France embarked on an 11
yr. military campaign across
Europe defeating: Austria 05’,
Prussia 06’, Russia 07’,
Friedland 07’
• 1808 invaded Spain
• 1806: Napoleon found it
difficult to fight England and
instead began blocking English
goods from European ports:
Continental System
• Black market and smuggling
activities continued
• Peninsular War 1808-1814: problems in
Spain, but major problem was Russia.
• 1812 Napoleon moved into Russia
because Alexander I abolished his
Continental System
• Tsar pulled Napoleon’s troop within
Russia, but they destroyed their own cities
and crops. Napoleon’s men had no winter
quarters, food, and were ill-equipped for
the Russian winter
• 500,000 men set out, but only 100,000 men
came back alive
• England/ Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia,
and Austria joined forces against France.
• 1813:Battle of Nations France
lost…occupied Paris
• Napoleon exiled to Mediterranean island of
Elba…gave power to his son
• Allies refused to accept Francois (son) and
invited Louis XVI’s brother, Louis XVIII,
to rule France (Bourbons restored)
• Napoleon escaped the island
of Elba and reclaimed his
position in France
• He gathered troops and in
June, 1815 went to war for
•  he underestimated his
• He was quickly defeated at
• Afterward, he was exiled to
the inhospitable island of
Saint Helena in the South
• British watched over
him…died 6yrs later
(stomach cancer)
Congress of Vienna:
• Following the Battle of
Nations and expulsion of
Napoleon a treaty was signed:
Balance of Power Theory
• First Peace of Paris (May
1814) set the boundaries of
France as of 1792 boarders
then after Waterloo Second
Peace of Paris (November
1815) was signed. Set France’s
boundaries as of their 1790
• Louis XVIII (brother of Louis
XVI) brought into France and
the monarchy was restored
Conservatism: stressed
tradition and necessity of
corporate institutions. Slow
evolution rather than
revolutionary process. Argued
to retain monarchies
• Metternich (Austria) attempted
to stop all constitutional
reforms to improve civil
• Liberalism: freedom of the
individual and the
corruptibility of authority.
France and England-supported
constitutional monarchy.
Spoke for increase rights of
women, workers, and in
general civil liberties
• Socialism: rejected world as it
was-hierarchy in society based to
work…not wealth. Against
• Revolutionary socialists: Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels
proposed a more extreme version
(Communism/ Marxism). Stated
capitalism would led to growing
class struggle
• Industrialization brought many
changes that were startling and
• Urban problems: congestion,
crime, disease, and working
• Realization people were not equal
• Poor wages for women led to
prostitution and the spread of
many diseases
Greek Revolution against Ottoman Rule • GB: Great Reform Bill of 1832-
1820s–Turks responded with deadly
force. Philhellenic (lover of Greece)
movement. Lord Bryon (poet) sailed to
Greece to help fight against the
Turks…died of malaria there. England,
France, and Russia signed the 1827
Treaty of London to support liberation of
Greece. They defeated. (Congress of
Vienna –wanted territorial stability
which the Turks couldn’t hold onto)
• French Revolution 1830 (July
Monarchy) 1824 King Charles X took
throne of France (bro of King Louis
XVIII). He didn’t support the
constitutional monarchy and moved to
restore absolutism! Food crisis…led to
revolt! 3 days in July the Bourbon
regime pulled down and Charles X fled
to England. Charles’s cousin LouisPhilippe became new constitutional
monarch (hence name July Monarchy)
granted more men (middle class
land owners) voting rights –Chartist
Belgian provinces revolted against
Netherlands and Dutch rulers in
August of 1830-wanted
independence and constitution! Won
it and recognized so long as they
remained a neutral state
Poland-1830 wanted independence:
Russia crushed!
Italy: 1831 Young Italy –Giuseppe
Mazzini -(still broken) northern
states under Austrian rule protestedineffective! Movement driven
Overall rebellions showed a
growing class consciousness among
the working class
Showed commitment to stability and
balance of power in Europe
1848 Revolutions
• Poor harvest, rising food prices,
and working class agitation for
political reforms
• France 1848: revolt of Parisian
workers against bourgeois-King
Philippe abdicated and interim
government formed: Provisional
government of the second
republic- tried to “fix”
unemployment by setting up
national workshops. Workers
from all over France poured into
Paris-ineffective and workers
again revolted in June
• General Louis Cavaignac crushed
rebellion and a military
dictatorship established until
elections could be held –Louis
Napoleon elected
• Pan-Germanic conference 1848Creation of German state: Design
of German nation-”small” option:
restricted nation to smaller area
that would be predominantly
German. Movement failed when
Friedrich Wihelm IV of Prussia
refused to accept the crown of the
new nation
• Austria revolts-Viennaconstitutional reform
• Budapest-separate state
• Prague-not successful, Habsburg
armies crushed revolution
• Not the most successful-but
revolutionaries learned how to
organize, move beyond class lines,
campaign, and lobby
• Romanticism/ Change:
embodied rebellion
from authority. Placed
emphasis on emotion
rather than intellectspirit rather than
classic models.
Examples: Victor
Hugo/ Frederic
• Nationalism: 1815-50
Political doctrine that
glorified the people
united against absolute
monarchs and tyranny
Local unification
movements in Italy
and Germany
Reform in Great Britain
• Electoral system had not
changed since Middle
• Urban areas
underrepresented along
with capitalists
“rotten boroughs”
• Reform Bill of 1832
extended political voice to
commercial elite
• However, did not extend
to workers
• New reform: People’s
Charter-universal male
suffrage, paid
representatives, equal
electoral districts, and
annual elections-Rejected
by Parliament
• Unrest/ labor strike-not
violent though
Workers Unite
• Skilled workers in
opposition to
mechanization of
• Against female laborcheaper
• Wanted to protect their
craft organizations
• England, France, and
Germany this led to
outbreaks of violence
• Luddites of Englandbreaking machines
• Craftsmen of France-July
Monarchy (but didn’t
answer requests-strikes)
• More radical turned to
socialism and
• Female: Flora Tristan:
equality by education and
Unifying Italy
• Not been united since the
end of the Roman Empire
in the 5th century
• Movement known as
“Risorgimento” or
resurgence –hopes
stemmed from
reorganization of Italy
during the reign of
• Revolutionary movements
of the 1848’s had been
crushed by Austria:
Young Italy-Giuseppe
Red Shirts-Giuseppe
• Camillo Benso di Cavourrealistic politican from
• Created an alliance with
France against Austria in
1858-Treaty of Plombieres
• Austria (provoked by
Cavour) declared war in
1859 and was easily
defeated by French forces
in the battles of Magenta
and Solferino
• 1859 Lombardy joined
• France got parts of Savoy
and Nice
Unifying Italy
• 1860-Tuscany, Parma,
Romagna, and Modena
voted to kick out Austria
and become part of
under king Victor
Emmanuel II
• 1860-uprisings against
King Francis II of
Naples (Garibaldi led)
• Cavour took steps to
eliminate Garibaldi’s
• Cavour took Naples by
military force
• By 1860 Italy was
united under 1 ruler
(Victor Emmanuel II)
• 1866 gained Venetia
due to war Austria lost
against Prussia
• 1870-gained Rome
due to war France lost
with Prussia
Unification of Germany
• Otto von Bismarck
(Prussia)- Realpolitik –
ruthless pursuit of
advancing the interest of
your state at any means
(illegal/ violent)
• Junker member
• Saw liberal reformers
and Junker sharing
interest in unification of
Germany-exploited this
shared interest
7 Weeks War
• 1850-Prussia forced to
• Prussia easily won and
accept Austria’s
began to exclude
dominance and began to
exclude it from
Austria from German
agreements made in the
• 1867-Habsburg empire
• 1864-Prussia made
alliance with Austria to
turned itself into 2
take the German territories
state ruled by 1 ruler
of Schieswig and Holstein
from Denmark and agreed
to rule jointly
• 1866-Bismarck provoked
war with Austria over
management of these
Franco-Prussian War
• (southern German
provinces feared
unification with Prussia
due to conservatism)
• France also feared
Germany not good for
them internationally
• 1870 Bismarck provoked
France-needed a dramatic
event like war to unite the
southern provinces to
Prussia, which would
unify Germany
• Bismarck gave the
impression that the
ambassador insulted the
king of Prussia
• July 1870 France declared
war on Prussia and the
southern provinces united
with Prussia
• Prussia successful-they
studied the terrain of
France, had a larger army,
and deployed troops via
the RR
• France lost the war
Germany/ Nationalism
• Jan 1871 German empire
established-Second Reichunder the leadership of the
Prussian king
• Reichstag (German
national assembly formed)
• Reichstag held no real
power over king, but
served more as an
advisory council at this
• Nation no longer
embodied by the king
• Now, nations had their
own symbols:
Britannia of Eng.
Marianne of Fran.
England and Parliamentary
• Reforms worked and kept
G.B. from the 1848
• Parliament able to adapt
to demands of an
industrial society
• Industrialist commitment
to growth vs. workers
need for protection from
the government
• 1832-Reform Billbourgeoisie vote
• 1867-urban vote
• 1884-farm vote
• Prime Ministers:
• Gladstone: liberal who
broke from Tory
principles –best
government was one that
governed the least
• Lower taxes, abolished
tariffs, secret ballot, edu.
Act, military and civil
service reform, ended the
Anglican church of
England and Parliamentary
• Disraeli-from merchant
• Conservative supported
monarchy, house of lords,
and Church
• Factory Act of 1875-56
hrs of work a week
• Public Health Act, Trade
Union Act, and wanted
• Was successful at
political campaigns to
increase his base of
• Believed in government
intervention-liberal today
Demise of Royal Authority
• Old regime: power
came from the
monarch (divine
authority) OUT
• New-power flowed
from the citizens and
was appointed to
voted representatives
• Issue-how to control
and tame public
• “Politics ruins the
character” Bismarkpoliticians began amoral
and used Realpolitiks.
Whatever necessary for
your state
• New strategy for
politicians-they became
calculators and weighed
levels of risk appropriate
for the ends they sought
to achieve
Politicians to Remember
• Cavour-Italian unification-liberal
• Bismarck-Prussia-German unificationconservative
• Napoleon III-economic increase of France
and improving reputation-both liberal and
Changing Values
• People of the late 19th
century considered
themselves “modern”
• Their values and
world view were
• 2 titans: natural
sciences and science
of society (Darwin and
• Politics of homemakingvirtuous women maintain
their homes and are
devoted to their families.
Literature to inform
women of the new
science of the domestic
• Women who worked
reflected “social evils”
and were unnatural
Women and the Family
• Women of every class
had increasing
workloads placed on
• Working class women
usually worked then
came home and worked
piecework and then
preformed the domestic
• Concept of the home as
a “haven” was false
• Venereal diseases rose
rapidly and proved that
not all couples were as
devoted as they seemed
• 14-17 % of all deaths in
France were attributable
to STD’s
• Women who worked were
considered bad mothers
and outside of their
duties. This justified poor
pay for women.
• Some began to protest
their circumstances,
which lead to the
Illustrations from Mrs Beeton’s Everyday
Housekeeping and Cookery Book, 1890, showing a
housekeeper going about her daily duties
Women and Politics
• Showed that women were
• Black Friday: Nov. 18,
militant (suffragettes)
1910 England-women
marched to Parliament in • Emmeline Pankhurst:
leader of movement in
protest of the refusal of
Great Britain: WSPU
women to have the right to
(women’s social and
political union)
• Women told to leave,
• She was arrested and did
refused and were beaten
experience force-feeding
and arrested by London
after going on hunger
police (bobbies)
strike on various
• Three Conciliation bills were
put before the House of
Commons, one each year in
st international
1910,1911 and in 1912 which
feminist meeting in Paris
would extend the right of
women to vote in the United
• Feminist: believed men
Kingdom of Great Britain and
and women were equal
Ireland to around 1,000,000
and should enjoy equal
wealthy, property-owning
Pankhurst and
Pankhurst being
arrested and carried
away by a police
officer in England
Women and Politics
• Pankhurst encouraged
destruction of property
to highlight violence
done to women by
denying them the vote
1918 England
1918 Germany
1920 America
1945 France
Charles Darwin-New Science
• No real leaps in science
during shortly before this
due to industrialization
and science being used to
promote material
• Studied the natural world
• On the Origin of Species
by Means of Natural
Selection (1859)
• “Survival of the
fittest”: life forms
originate in and
themselves through
struggle. The
outcome was
determined by natural
adapted individuals
survived while others
died out.
Charles Darwin
Karl Marx
• Marx believed he
discovered the law of
development of human
history-like Darwin for
• “Darwin of sociology”
• Socialist/ evolutionist:
history is the dialectical
struggle of classes
• Capitalist society:
bourgeoisie owned
means of production as
private property vs.
proletariat or the
propertyless working
• Capitalism will only
increase the size of the
proletariat due to the
greed of the bourgeoisie
to make more $
• Great revolution will
take place were the
proletarians will unite
and stand against the
• Marxism became
increasingly popular
Karl Marx
“The worker becomes all the
poorer the more wealth he
produces, the more his production
increases in power and range. The
worker becomes an ever cheaper
commodity the more commodities
he creates. With the increasing
value of the world of things
proceeds in direct proportion to the
devaluation of the world of men.
Labour produces not only
commodities; it produces itself and
the worker as a commodity -- and
does so in the proportion in which
it produces commodities
Marx, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts (1844)
Science and New Consciousness
• New discoveries reshaped
the known world between
1870-1914 and challenged
traditional beliefs
• Age of scientific
electromagnetism, X-ray,
visible light, radio waves, •
chemical elements,
quantum physics, theory
of relativity, biological ID •
of microorganisms
Marie / Pierre Curie
Albert Einstein
Max Planck
Niels Bohr
James Clerk Maxwell
Gregor Mendel
• Louis Pasteur
• Rudolf Virchow
Maria Skłodowska- Pierre Curie
Louis Pasteur in his laboratory,
painting by A. Edelfeldt in
Rudolf Ludwig Karl
Young Albert before the Einsteins
moved from Germany to Italy
Max Planck presents Einstein
with the Max-Planck medal,
Berlin June 28 1929
Einstein and Niels Bohr sparred over
quantum theory during the 1920s.
Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during
their visit to Leiden in December
Establishing Social Sciences
• Scientific method was
applied to social
sciences as well:
history, economics,
sociology, psychology,
and criminology
• Pavlov: psychologist
who held experiments
in conditioning dogs
• : psychologist who
began probing into the
unconsciousnesspeered into this aspect
of the mind by use of
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
Иван Петрович
One of Pavlov’s Dogs, Pavlov Museum,
Food (U.C.S.) => Salivation (U.C.R.) Natural
Bell (N.S.) + Food (U.C.S.) => Salivation (U.C.R.)
After repeating the pairing a few times.
Bell (C.S.) => Salivation (C.R.) Learning occurs.
Notice how the response never changes.
Sigmund Freud
“the father of
New Consumption
• Tolstoy “Money is a new
form of slavery”
• Peasant freed from the
land entangled in a web of
financial obligation
• Social status tied to leisure
clothing (corset) showed
they didn’t have to work
and therefore where of a
high social class
• Middle/ Upper class:
• Increased benefit of the
lower class gave them
ability to participate in
leisure activities
• Rise of pubs, vaudeville,
music halls, cinemas,
and striptease (lower)
• Rise of organized sports
(Olympics 1894/ Tour
de France)
Corset, Paris, 1905
Woman having her corset laced tight, from
an 1899 stereoscope card
From newspaper promotional for
vaudeville character actor Charles E.
A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near
Braunton, North Devon, England
"Quo sursum volo
videre" - Where I want
to look further. Latin
pub inscription