Dictators and Warlords

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Transcript Dictators and Warlords

Unit 11
World War II
1939-1945 (world)
1941-1945 (U.S.)
Treaty of Versailles – Review
The Treaty:
Forced Germany to assume full blame for
causing the war.
Imposed huge reparations upon Germany.
The Treaty aimed at weakening Germany by:
• Limited the size of the German military to
100,000 total
• No tanks, heavy artillery, airplanes,
submarines, or draft
• Must return Alsace and Lorraine to France
• Removed hundreds of miles of territory
from Germany
• Stripped Germany of its overseas colonies
Treaty of Versailles – Review
The treaty also chopped up and created new
The Germans signed the treaty because they
had no choice
Germans resentment of the Treaty of Versailles
poisoned the international climate for 20 years
Dictators and Warlords
Benito Mussolini’s rise to power
Made Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 by King
Victor Emmanuel III on the promise to return
economic prosperity and build a new “Roman
In theory, Italy remained a
parliamentary monarchy.
In practice, Italy became a
dictatorship upheld by terror.
Mussolini formed the Fascist Party.
Dictators and Warlords
Adolf Hitler’s rise to power
Fought in the German army in World War I.
In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wing
Within a year, he was leader of the
National Socialist German Workers,
or Nazi Party.
In 1923, he made a failed attempt
to seize power in Munich, and was
imprisoned for treason.
Dictators and Warlords
Adolf Hitler’s rise to power
In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf
(“My Struggle”).
• It later became the basic book of Nazi goals
and ideology.
Nazi membership grew to almost a million.
In 1933, Hitler was made Chancellor (Prime
Minister) of Germany.
Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He
made Germany a one-party state and purged his
own party.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Mein Kampf
(My Struggle)
Dictators & Warlords
Benito Mussolini
Adolf Hitler
In September 1938,
British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain
thought he had Adolf
Hitler’s promise of
Chamberlain holds the paper containing the
resolution to commit to peaceful methods
signed by both Hitler and himself on his
return from Germany at Croydon Airport
in September 1938. He said:
My good friends, for the second time in our
history, a British Prime Minister has
returned from Germany bringing peace
with honour. I believe it is peace for our
Dictators & Warlords
Emperor Hirohito
Dictators & Warlords
Joseph Stalin
(Soviet Union)
Dictators and Warlords
August 1939
Germany and Soviet Union signed
agreement to remain friends
September 1, 1939
Hitler’s troops invaded Poland
• Beginning of World War II
War in Europe
Germans used the Blitzkrieg
(“lightning war”)
Quick, surprise attacks – depended on enemy
unpreparedness and inability to react swiftly.
Planes bombed airfields, factories, towns and cities,
firing on troops and civilians; then sent in troops and
tanks –
Luftwaffe (German air force)
Growing American Involvement
When the war began in 1939, the United
States declared its neutrality.
Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which
allowed the President to supply arms to those
who were fighting for democracy.
Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic
Charter, which called for the “final destruction
of the Nazi tyranny.”
Japan advanced into French Indochina and the
Dutch East Indies.
To stop Japanese aggression, the United
States banned the sale of war materials to
Atlantic Charter
Franklin Roosevelt and
Winston Churchill agreed to seek no
territorial gain from the war
FDR and Churchill pledged to support the
“right of all peoples to choose the form of
government under which they will live.”
The Atlantic Charter called for a
“permanent system of general security,”
such as an organization like the League of
Franklin Roosevelt & Winston Churchill
Pearl Harbor
Because of the United States’ trade embargoes,
Japan sees no option but attack.
General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the
American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese planes destroy or damage
19 ships, many planes, and kill over 2400 people.
It was “a day that will live in infamy.”
Dec. 8, 1941, President Roosevelt asks for
declaration of war.
Germany and Italy as allies of Japan declare war on
the US Dec. 11.
In the beginning it’s not looking good for the Allies
Germany, Italy and Japan form the
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. These
became the Axis powers.
Soviet soldiers fighting in ruins of Stalingrad
General Douglas MacArthur
Island Hopping
The United States began an “islandhopping” campaign. The goal of the
campaign was to recapture some Japaneseheld islands while bypassing others. The
captured islands served as steppingstones to
the next objective.
In this way, American forces gradually moved
north to Japan itself.
Strategies in the Pacific
At first, the Japanese won an
uninterrupted series of victories.
The US lost the Philippines and 75,000
US POW's were forced to march 75
miles in the Bataan death march with
little food, water or rest. Many died of
starvation, disease, or violence.
Soon, however, the tide of the Pacific
war began to turn.
The US won victories at the Battle of
Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway.
Midway became the turning point for the
war in the Pacific.
They weakened Japan and stopped
them from advancing.
World War II in the Pacific
Benito Mussolini
Gen. Dwight Eisenhower
Adolf Hitler
Death of Benito Mussolini
Defeat of Japan
After victory in Europe,
full attention was given
to the Pacific.
US was winning battles
and destroying Japanese air force and navy but the
Japanese kept fighting.
Invasion vs. The Bomb
Estimated an invasion would cost 1 million
Japan had been using Kamikaze since 1944pilots who undertook suicide missions.
Japan would not surrender easily.
Japanese “kamikaze” zero about to hit
USS Missouri
The Atomic Bomb
Military leaders planned for an invasion while scientists
developed an new bomb – the atomic bomb.
President Truman (FDR died while in office) meets with
advisers and decides to use the bomb instead of an
They issued a warning
to Japan to surrender
or face “utter and
complete destruction.”
Japan ignores the
The Atomic Bomb
Dropping the atomic bomb brought a quick end to
the war. It also unleashed terrifying destruction.
Why did President Truman use the atomic bomb?
Truman was convinced that Japan would not
surrender without an invasion that would result in
enormous losses of both American and Japanese
Truman also may have hoped that the bomb
would impress the Soviet Union with American
World War II in the Pacific
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6, 1945, US plane the
Enola Gay drops an atomic bomb on
the city of Hiroshima.
Four square miles flattened and over
70,000 people killed instantly.
August 9, a second bomb is dropped
on Nagasaki. Over 40,000 people die.
Little Boy and Fat Man
Hiroshima aftermath
Nagasaki bomb
New Technology
Ships-destroyers and carriers
Jet engines
Bombs and artillery
Radar and Sonar developed to
detect planes and submarines
USS Missouri
Japanese unconditional surrender
ceremony ending WWII
September 2, 1945
Japanese unconditional surrender
ceremony ending WWII: Sept. 2, 1945
War in Europe
German leaders worked to accomplish the “final
solution of the Jewish problem” — the genocide, or
deliberate murder, of all European Jews.
This genocide became known as the Holocaust.
Jews, political prisoners, and other undesirables were
sent to labor camps to starve and work to death or
sent to death camps to be exterminated.
About 6 million Jews died.
Tuskagee Airmen
America’s first black
military airmen
From 1941 through
1946, 996 pilots
graduated at
Tuskegee Army Air
Field (TAAF) in
Tuskegee Alabama
General George S. Patton
One of the most
successful U.S.
field commanders
of any war
In this 1942 Dorothea Lange photograph from the newly published
“Impounded,” a family in Hayward, Calif., awaits an evacuation bus.
People of Japanese ancestry arriving at Tanforan Assembly Center, a
former racetrack in San Bruno, Calif. (Dorothea Lange picture)
Inside a barracks apartment at Tanforan (Dorothea Lange picture)
Horse stalls at Tanforan that were transformed into living quarters for
internees. (Dorothea Lange picture)
Forced internment of 120,000 people of Japanese descent
Thousands of Japanese Americans were interned
Tule Lake, CA
Internees ate together in a mess hall
Japanese internment camps were often extremely crowded
Japanese Internment Camps
Japanese Internment Camps
Japanese Internment Camps
Japanese Internment Camps
Special effects during the 1940's
During World War II, the Army Corps of
Engineers needed to hide the Lockheed
Burbank Aircraft Plant to protect it from
Japanese air attack.
They covered it with camouflage
netting to make it look like a rural
subdivision from the air.
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
Special effects during the 1940's
“History does not entrust the care of
freedom to the weak or timid.”
- Dwight D. Eisenhower