THE INCA - capehistory

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Transcript THE INCA - capehistory

 The Inca controlled a large empire in the Andean
Region of South America which is present day
 The empire expanded rapidly to include
Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile and Bolivia.
 The Inca called their land ‘Tawantinsuyu’
 The empire was vast and sophisticated consisting
of highways, stone temples, terraced land and
swinging bridges.
 The term ‘Inca’ actually refers to the ruler who
was believed to be the child the sun.
 ‘Quechua’ was the official language of the Inca
realm. However, there were about 20 local
languages spoken.
 The Emperor was the head of government
 It was believed that the emperor was a
descendant of the ‘Sun God’
 The emperor was called the ‘Lord Inca’
 Lord Inca was regarded as both a king and a god
 The Lord Inca resided in ‘Cuzco’ the capital of
the empire
 The empire had four political divisions
 Each division was governed by a nobleman
appointed by the Lord Inca
 Each division was sub-divided into provinces
ruled by a governor
 In each province there were districts made up
of villages which were governed by ‘Curacas’
 In each village there were ‘ayallu’
 The ‘ayallu’ was made of groups of ten
 Each ayallu had an overseer/foreman
 The empire was operated from funds/taxes
called ‘mita’
 All members of the empire except nobles were
required to pay mita
 Mita took the form of gifts or labour
 Inca people who worked in areas such as
gold and silver mining, building
construction or working in the fields made
their mita contributions in these forms
 The Inca had a very strong and
sophisticated army
• Also called the Emperor or Supreme Inca
• Was responsible for making final decisions
• Were members of the royal family, they did not pay taxes
• Responsible for one of each of the four divisions
• Rulers of provinces
• Supervisors of the curacas
• assisted the governors and supervised the foremen
• Responsible for clans called ayallu
 Houses were simple comprising a single room
with thatched roof
 The interior was practically bare
 Animal hides or woolen mats were used as
 Each home had a fireplace fuelled by the
droppings of animals such as llama and alpaca
 The Inca people wore loose garments
consisting of a piece of cloth pinned at the
 They also wore sandal made from llama skins
 Their attire also included a head dress which
varied from province to province
 The Lord Inca’s garments were specially woven
by priestesses who were trained for this task
from as early as age ten
 The noble wore clothes of fine quality
 Those of higher classes enjoyed the privilege of
wearing large ear plugs
 Generally, the Inca people wore a great deal of
 Inca food consisted mostly of starchy foods such
as potatoes, corn (maize) and quinoa
 Their source of protein was from guinea pigs and
 Inca people also enjoyed fruits and vegetables
 In the highlands the Inca preserved their potatoes
by freezing them and extracting the juice. The
freeze dried potatoes was called ‘chunu’
 The meat of the guinea pig was dried and cut into
strips called ‘charqui’
 The lowland Inca preferred to eat maize which
was ground in a mill and cooked in porridge.
 The Inca did not cook with salt, rather they licked
it from the palm of their hands while they ate
 The Inca people made beer from maize
 Women were responsible for the maintenance
of the home
 They also assisted with the production of food
 Women spun yarn to weave cloth for garments
and blankets
 They also attended to the animals
 Every Inca woman was expected to marry
 At her first menstruation an Inca girl was
required to fast for three days
 After the fasting period, she was washed by her
mother and dressed in special clothes
 She would then be presented to her family and
her uncle would give her a name e.g. Egg, Star,
 She would then be paired to a boy for marriage
 Worship was focused on the sun
 The Lord Inca was thought to be a descendant of
the sun
 The Lord Inca made sacrifices of gold, silver and a
boy or girl (10 yrs) to his father the Sun
 About 500 girls and boys were kept for the
purpose of sacrifice which was done in a room
lined with gold
 Sacrifices took place at sunrise
 ‘Viracocha’ was the creator of all gods
 ‘Inti’ was the Sun God
 ‘Mama-Kilya’ was the Moon Mother
 ‘Illapa’ was the God of Thunder which
controlled the rain
 Temples for worship were constructed at the
top of pyramids called ‘Coriancha’
 The Inca traded goods such as fish, cloth, pots
 They made balsa rafts for sailing and catching fish
 The cloth was highly rated and was woven into
beautiful patterns of various colours
 There was also intensive agricultural activities
 All arable land was brought under cultivation in
order to feed the large population
 Irrigation canals were built mile long at the edges
of fertile valleys
 Human and animal waste were used as soil
fertilizers as soil quality was poor
 Those Inca people who neither farmed or fished
became herdsmen tending to the llama
 The agricultural year was regulated by a precise
 Inca developed a highly functional style of
They displayed engineering techniques and fine
They constructed fortresses e.g. ‘Sacahuanman’
near Cuzco
Bridges were also constructed for the purposes of
carrying water and communication.
There were 3 types of bridges – swing, pontoon
and raft
 A complex road network was developed
 Weaponry was also sophisticated and was
considered to be the best in the Americas
 The Inca mixed tin and copper to form a
strong bronze which was molded into
weapons such as arrows
 Other weapons included bolas, slings and