Ukraine during the World War II

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Transcript Ukraine during the World War II

1. The Second World War in
 2. Ukrainians under the fascist
occupation. Movement of
 3. Return of the soviet power to
World War II, or the Second World War, was a
global military conflict which involved a majority
of the world's nations.
 There were two opposing military alliances: the
Allies and the Axis.
 The starting date of the war is generally held to
be September 1939 with the German invasion
of Poland
 The war involved the mobilization of over 100
million military personnel.
Over 70 million people, the majority of them
civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest
conflict in human history.
 The Soviet Union and the United States
emerged from the war as the world's leading
 This set the stage for the Cold War, which
lasted for the next 45 years.
 The United Nations was formed in the hope of
preventing another such conflict.
Second World War for Ukraine actually started on
September 1 1939, when Germans attacked Poland,
The most cruel and tragic stage of the war began with
the attack of Germany on the USSR on June 22 1941
and continued till the autumn of 1944, when German
forces were turned out from Ukraine.
Having guarantee of neutrality of the Soviet Union
Hitler attacked Poland, initiating the start of the
Second World War.
On September 17 1939 the Soviet army went
to eastern Poland and occupied almost all
territory, settled by Ukrainians and Belorusians.
 In June 1940 the USSR forced Rumania to give
back Bessarabiya and Bukovyna
 Punitive bodies of the USSR arrested and
deported Ukrainian political leaders to the East
of Russia.
 From 20 to 30 thousand Ukrainian activists run
away to Poland, occupied by the Germans.
At the beginning many representatives of intelligence
were impressed, as they received job in soviet
educational and cultural establishments, but they
quickly understood, that became strictly controlled by
organization men of regime, and in case of violation of
directions arose threaten of arrest and deportation
In the spring of 1940 the regime opened the mask of
democracy and began wile-ranging repressions – as
against the Ukrainians, as against Poles.
The most popular and awful their type was
deportation to Siberia and Kazakhstan, where people
died by the whole families.
Khreshchatyk, the main street of
Kiev, after German bombardment
Map of the World with the Participants in World War II.
The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern
allies in red, the Axis powers in black and the neutral
countries in grey.
Ukrainians under the fascist occupation. Movement
of Opposition
In 1939 about 550 thousand of Ukrainians from
Lemkivshina and Holemshina turned out in German
occupation zone in the eastern remote area of Poland
Zacarpathian with 550 thousand Ukrainians formed a
part of Hungary.
Soon after coming of Germans, in Ukraine appeared
the national movement of opposition.
There also existed underground organizational system
of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN)
Partisans were mainly collected in northern west part
of the country – in the forests of Volyn, bogs of
Polissya and Carpathians.
In the beginning of 1944 on the occupied lands of
Ukraine in general 47 thousand 800 people in the
form of partisan detachments and struggled with
fascist conquers.
In 1942 members of different branches of
Organization of Ukrainian nationalists (OUN) created
small elements in Volyn.
Ukrainian revolt army (URA) quickly grew in the big,
well-organized partisan army, which took control under
the significant parts of Volyn, Polissya and finally
Execution of partisans, somewhere in the Soviet
Union, September, 1941
Partisans take on the village to drive away a
German punitive expedition.
Return of the soviet power to Ukraine
The decisive crisis arose in the war in 1943: the soviet
army began the counter-offensive, the main purpose
of which was in liberation of the left-bank Ukraine.
During the end of the summer-autumn of 1943 the
soviet army occupied left-bank and Donbas.
On August 23 in result of desperate fight Kharkiv was
liberated. In September-October the Red army broke
powerful line of German defense at the Dnieper and
on November 6 entered to Kyiv.
In January 1944 after the short stop almost 2,3
million of Red army began clearing from
Germans right-bank and Crimea.
 In September they crossed the Carpathians and
till the October 1944 all ethnic Ukrainian
territory appeared in soviet hands.
 Second World War took the lives at least 5,3
million Ukrainians, or one from every six citizen
of Ukraine died in the struggle.
 2,3 million Ukrainians were taken out from the
forced labor in Germany.
Completely or partly it were destroyed over 700
big and small cities and 28 thousand villages,
in result of what 10 million people became
 As the war caused in Ukraine more damage,
than in any country in Europe, losses in the
economy gained huge measures.
 It was estimated, that Ukraine lost over 40
percent of its economy.
1. Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press (1988).
2. Andrew Wilson. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation.
Yale University Press; 2nd edition (2002).
3. Anna Reid. Borderland: A Journey Through the
History of Ukraine. London, Orion Books; 4th
impression (1998, preface 2003).
4. Paul Robert Magocsi. A History of Ukraine. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press (1996).
5. Mykhailo Hrushevsky. History of Ukraine-Rus’ in 9