The Blueprint for a perfect diet
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the science or study of food
and the ways in which the body uses
It is also the study of the nutrients
What are nutrients?
They are substances in the food that
provide energy or help form body
tissues, and are necessary for life and
What are Carbohydrates???
A class of energygiving nutrients that
fibers, and sugars.
Fruit, milk, cookies,
and potatoes have
All carbohydrates are made up of one
There are two basic types of carbohydrates, Simple
Simple carbs are made up of single or double sugar
Complex carbs are made up of many sugar molecules
that are linked together.
Glucose- A single sugar that circulates in the blood;
the most important sugar in the body because it
provides energy to the body’s cells.
Fructose- A single sugar that is called fruit sugar;
sweeter than table sugar; found naturally in fruit and
honey; added to sweetened drinks.
Lactose- A double sugar made by animals that is also
called milk sugar; found in dairy products.
Sucrose- A double sugar refined from sugar beets or
sugar cane that we call table sugar; found in candies
and baked goods and used as a table sweetener.
Why do you have to be so Complex?
Starch is made of many sugars; found in
foods like potatoes, beans, and grains.
Glycogen is made in the body; made up of
many glucose units linked together and
stored in the muscle and liver of humans.
Fiber made of many glucose units linked
together; found in fruits and vegetables.
Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water,
and add bulk to your body’s waste.
Last of the Carbs…
If you eat more carbs than what you need,
some will be stored as glycogen, which is
your body’s quick energy reserve.
If the storage space becomes full, then the
body converts it to fat.
Fats…sound good, but are
A class of energygiving nutrients that
are also the main
form of energy
storage in the body.
Fats belong to a class of chemical compounds called
lipids, which are fatty or oily substances that do not
dissolve in water.
They are made up of fatty acids, and glycerol. Three
fatty acids are linked to one glycerol, which is why
fats are also called triglycerides.
Saturated fat vs. Unsaturated fat
Fats that are made up of saturated
The atom of fat is saturated
because it is bonded to as many
hydrogen atoms as chemically
Some oils (cocoanut, palm), meat,
whole milk, butter, and ice cream
are examples of saturated fat.
High levels of saturated fat can lead
to obesity, high cholesterol, and
Considered unsaturated because
they do not hold the maximum
amount of hydrogen atoms that is
They are most common found in
plants and tend to be liquid at room
Found in oils (olive, peanut, and
canola), peanuts, salmon and steak
Found in all human and
animal tissue; body
makes it itself.
Needed to make
Vitamin D, cell
hormones and bile (a
substance that aids in
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) vs. Low Density
Carries cholesterol back to the
liver, where it is removed from
Linked to animal tissue, so
dietary cholesterol is found only
in foods such as meat, fish,
poultry, eggs, and diary
Called “good cholesterol”
because it lowers your risk of
Brings cholesterol to the body
When LDL levels get high, it
forms a substance called
plaque, which forms on the
walls of blood vessels. Plaque
blocks blood flow to the cardiac
muscle, which causes……?
Looking good takes PROTEIN!
A class of nutrients made up of
amino acids, which are needed
to build and repair body
structures and to regulate
processes in the body.
Your skin, nails, hair and
muscles are made up of protein.
Also needed to for enzymes,
hormones, and antibodies.
If you eat more than is needed,
it will be stored as ???
What makes Proteins?
Proteins are made up on chains of molecule
A. Amino Acids
20 different type of amino acids make up body
proteins, and nine of them cannot be made in our
body. These nine proteins are called essential amino
The other 11 can be made in your body, and they are
A. Non essential acids
Complete and Incomplete
Proteins provided by animals contain the essential
amino acids, therefore we call them complete
Most plant proteins (legumes, grains, and
vegetables) don’t have all the essential amino acids,
so we call them incomplete proteins.
Those who are vegetarian are able to meet their
protein dietary needs by eating a variety of plant
proteins. Ex. Legumes + Grains = Complete Protein.
Consequences of too much
protein, carbs, and fats
Body fat increases
High Blood Pressure
What happens when you
don’t get enough food?
*take a break Mr. J…you talk to
Class of nutrients
that contain carbon
and are needed in
small amounts to
maintain health and
They can be either
dissolved in fat or
Vitamin A- milk; yellow and orange fruits and veggies; cheese, eggs
and butter. Keeps eyes and skin healthy; needed for growth and for
strong bones and teeth.
Vitamin D- fish oils, fortified milk, liver, egg yolk, salmon, butter,
(produced in the body when exposed to UV rays).
Vitamin E- Vegetable oils, beans, peas, nuts, dark-green vegetables,
Vitamin K- leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, broccoli)…aids in blood
Water Soluble Vitamins
Eight “B” vitamins
B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, Folic Acid and Biotin
Vitamin “C” (Ascorbic Acid)
A class of nutrients that are
chemical elements that are
needed for certain
processes, such as enzyme
activity and bone formation.
There are over 20 different
minerals that are essential in
small amounts to maintain
(Calcium, Copper, Iron,
Sodium, Zinc, Sulfur,
Potassium, Selenium, etc).
What happens if I don’t get enough Vitamins
Nutrient Deficiency- The state of not
having enough of a nutrient to maintain
Nutrient Density- a measure of
nutrients in a food compared with the
energy a food provides.
Sodium- Body only needs small amounts of it (500 ml or ¼
teaspoon per day). You should not exceed 2400 ml, or 1 ¼
teaspoons per day. Also controls fluid levels in the body.
Calcium- Teens need about 1300 ml p/ day. One cup of milk
= 300 ml. Aids in cell reproduction, and bone formation.
*Osteoporosis is a bone density condition that happens when
you do not have enough calcium in the body. Bones become
brittle and break easily. One-half of woman over 50 will break a
bone because of osteoporosis. Most important time to get
calcium is during the teenage years.
Iron- Anemia happens when there is an iron deficiency. It is a
condition in which there are not enough red blood cells (RBC’s)
or hemoglobin to carry oxygen around the body. Iron is needed
to make hemoglobin.
Copper- needed for the production of
bone and red blood cells and the
absorption of iron.
Iodine- needed for production of
thyroid hormones and normal cell
“Mr. J, can I go get some Water”…”No, but you
can learn about it!”
60% of your body is water.
Body looses a mass amount of
water everyday by excretion,
urinating and solid waste,
evaporation through breathing,
through your skin, and as you
To make up for water loss,
drink up to 2.5 quarts per day,
or 8 cups.
What happens if you don’t get
Dehydration- Occurs when the body
loses more water than has been taken