Cognitive development

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Transcript Cognitive development

Psychology and
the Development
Across the Life
Topics in Development
Developmental Research Designs
• Human development - the scientific
study of the changes that occur in
people as they age from conception
until death.
Nature versus Nurture
• Nature - the influence of our inherited
characteristics on our personality,
physical growth, intellectual growth,
and social interactions.
• Nurture - the influence of the
environment on personality, physical
growth, intellectual growth, and social
Genetics Influences
• Chromosome - tightly wound strand
of genetic material or DNA.
• DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - special
molecule that contains the genetic
material of the organism.
Genetics Influences
• Gene - section of DNA having the same
arrangement of chemical elements.
– Recessive - referring to a gene that actively
controls the expression of a trait.
– Dominant - referring to a gene that only
influences the expression of a trait when
paired with an identical gene.
Human Development
• Continuity or discontinuity?
– Does development happen in a smooth,
continuous progression, or in a series of
clear-cut stages?
• Stability or change?
– What remains stable over the course of
human development, and what changes?
Developmental Psychology
• Physical Development - tightly
wound strand of genetic material or
• Cognitive development development of thinking and reasoning
skills such as problem solving and
Developmental Psychology
• Psychosocial development affecting our emotional and social lives.
– Temperament - a child's innate personality
and emotional characteristics, observable
in infancy; the enduring characteristics
with which each person is born.
– Attachment - the first emotional bond a
child forms with its primary caretaker.
Developmental Research Designs
• Longitudinal design - research design
in which one participant or group of
participants is studied over a long
period of time.
• Cross-sectional design - research
design in which several different age
groups of participants are studied at
one particular point in time.
Developmental Research Designs
• Cross-sequential design - research
design in which participants are first
studied by means of a cross-sectional
design but also followed and assessed
for a period of no more than six years.
Childhood Development
• Critical Period - a time when a child is
developmentally most susceptible to
the presence or absence of particular
stimuli in the environment and must
progress to the next stage of
development if development is to
continue normally.
Childhood Development
• Sensitive Period - a time when a child
is susceptible to stimuli and receptive
to learning from particular types of
Prenatal, Infant and Childhood
Conception and Twins
• Monozygotic twins - identical twins
formed when one zygote splits into two
separate masses of cells, each of which
develops into a separate embryo.
• Dizygotic twins - often called
fraternal twins, occurring when two
eggs each get fertilized by two different
sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the
uterus at the same time.
Periods of Pregnancy
• Germinal period - first two weeks
after fertilization, during which the
zygote moves down to the uterus and
begins to implant in the lining.
Periods of Pregnancy
• Embryonic period - the period from
two to eight weeks after fertilization,
during which the major organs and
structures of the organism develop.
• Fetal period - the time from about
eight weeks after conception until the
birth of the child.
– Teratogen - any factor that can cause a
birth defect.
Common Teratogens
Prenatal Development
• Embryo - name for the developing
organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks
after fertilization.
• Fetus - name for the developing
organism from 8 weeks after
fertilization to the birth of the baby.
Stages of Prenatal Development
Reflexes and Abilities
• Four critical areas of adjustment for the
newborn are:
– Respiration
– Digestion
– Circulation
– Temperature regulation
Reflexes and Abilities
• Infants are born with reflexes that help
the infant survive: sucking, rooting,
Moro (startle), grasping, and
• The senses, except for vision, are fairly
well developed at birth.
Five Newborn Reflexes
Shown here are five reflexes used to make sure the newborn's nervous system is healthy. These include (a) the
grasping reflex, (b) the startle or Moro reflex, (c) the rooting reflex, in which a baby whose cheek is touched will turn
toward the hand, open its mouth, and begin searching for the nipple (continued on next slide)
(continued) Five Newborn Reflexes
(d) the stepping reflex, and (e) the sucking reflex.
Physical Development in Infancy
and Childhood
• Gross and fine motor skills develop at a
fast pace during infancy and early
• Nutrition, care, and health affect
– Importance of immunizations.
• Muscle strength and coordination
improve around age 10-12.
Six Motor Milestones
Typical milestones in motor development are shown here: (a) raising head and chest—2 to 4 months, (b) rolling over—
2 to 5 months, (c) sitting up with support—4 to 6 months (continued on next slide)
(continued) Six Motor Milestones
(d) sitting up without support—6 to 7 months, (e) crawling—7 to 8 months, and (f) walking—8 to 18 months.
Cognitive Development
• Cognitive development - the
development of thinking, problem
solving, and memory scheme (plural
schemas) a mental concept formed
through experiences with objects and
Cognitive Development
• Piaget's belief - children form mental
schemes as they experience new
situations and events.
– Assimilation - in this case, the process of
trying to understand new things in terms of
schemes one already possesses.
– Accommodation - in this case, the process
of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit
new information and experiences.
Piaget's Stage Theory
• Sensorimotor stage - Piaget's first
stage of cognitive development in
which the infant uses its senses and
motor abilities to interact with objects
in the environment.
– Object permanence - the knowledge that
an object exists even when it is not in
Piaget's Stage Theory
• Preoperational stage - Piaget's
second stage of cognitive development
in which the preschool child learns to
use language as a means of exploring
the world.
Piaget's Stage Theory
• Preoperational stage (continued)
– Egocentrism - the inability to see the world
through anyone else's eyes.
– Centration - in Piaget's theory, the
tendency of a young child to focus only on
one feature of an object while ignoring
other relevant features.
Piaget's Stage Theory
• Preoperational stage (continued)
– Conservation - in Piaget's theory, the
ability to understand that simply changing
the appearance of an object does not
change the object's nature.
Measuring Conservation Skills
Experimenters often measure children's conservation skills by pouring equal amounts of water into two glasses of the
same size and shape. When the water from one glass is poured into a taller, narrower glass, children incorrectly
assume that the second glass has more water than the first one. In the second example, pennies are laid out in two
equal lines. When the pennies in the top line are then spaced out, the child who cannot yet conserve will assume that
there are actually more pennies in that line.
Piaget's Stage Theory
• Concrete operations stage - third
stage of cognitive development in
which the school-age child becomes
capable of logical thought processes
but is not yet capable of abstract
• Formal operations - Piaget's last
stage of cognitive development in
which the adolescent becomes capable
of abstract thinking.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Current Speech Theories
• Child-directed speech – children
attend to higher pitched, repetitious,
sing-song speech.
• Expressive language delay - the
apparent ability of infants to
understand far more language than
they can produce.
Stages of Language Development
One-word speech (holophrases)
Telegraphic speech
Whole sentences
• Attachment - the emotional bond
between an infant and the primary
– Secure - willing to explore, upset when
mother departs but easily soothed upon
her return.
– Avoidant – unattached; explore without
“touching base.”
• Attachment (continued)
– Ambivalent - insecurely attached; upset
when mother leaves and then angry with
mother upon her return.
– Disorganized-disoriented – insecurely
attached and sometimes abused or
neglected; seemed fearful, dazed, and
Erikson's Developmental Stages
• Eight stages of social development.
• First four stages take place in infancy
or childhood.
– Each represents an emotional crisis or
turning point.
Erikson's First Four Stages
• Trust versus mistrust - first stage of
personality development in which the
infant's basic sense of trust or mistrust
develops as a result of consistent or
inconsistent care.
• Autonomy versus shame and doubt
- second stage of personality
development in which the toddler
strives for physical independence.
Erikson's First Four Stages
• Initiative versus guilt - third stage of
personality development in which the
preschool-aged child strives for
emotional and psychological
independence and attempts to satisfy
curiosity about the world.
Erikson's First Four Stages
• Industry versus inferiority - fourth
stage of personality development in
which the adolescent strives for a sense
of competence and self-esteem.
Adolescence and Adulthood
• Adolescence - the period of life from
about age 13 to the early twenties,
during which a young person is no
longer physically a child but is not yet
an independent, self-supporting adult.
Adolescent Development
• Parent/teen conflict
– Conflict with parents may encourage
• Peer pressure
– Adolescents without a strong sense of self
are vulnerable to peer pressure.
Egocentric Thinking
• Personal fable - type of thought
common to adolescents in which young
people believe themselves to be unique
and protected from harm.
Egocentric Thinking
• Imaginary audience - type of thought
common to adolescents in which young
people believe that other people are
just as concerned about the
adolescent's thoughts and
characteristics as they themselves are.
Development of Morality
• Preconventional morality - first level
of Kohlberg's stages of moral
development in which the child's
behavior is governed by the
consequences of the behavior.
• Conventional morality - second level
of Kohlberg's stages of moral
development in which the child's
behavior is governed by conforming to
the society's norms of behavior.
Development of Morality
• Postconventional morality - third
level of Kohlberg's stages of moral
development in which the person's
behavior is governed by moral
principles that have been decided on by
the individual.
Kohlberg's Three Levels of Morality
Erikson's Fifth Stage
• Identity versus role confusion stage of personality development in
which the adolescent must find a
consistent sense of self.
Erikson's Theories of Adulthood
• Intimacy - an emotional and
psychological closeness that is based
on the ability to trust, share, and care,
while still maintaining a sense of self.
• Generativity - providing guidance to
one's children or the next generation
through career or volunteer work.
Erikson's Theories of Adulthood
• Ego integrity - sense of wholeness
that comes from having lived a full life
and the ability to let go of regrets; the
final completion of the ego.
Adulthood Cognitive Changes
• Intellectual abilities do not decline
• Perception and reaction time slows.
Physical Changes and Aging
• Effects of aging on health:
– Hereditary and lifestyle factors……..
– Increase in health problems …………
Stages of Death and Dying