D7-Transcription and Translation

download report

Transcript D7-Transcription and Translation

Transcription and
Translation:
What does a cell (or organism)
do with its genes??
The Structure of a DNA Molecule:
DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes
What Does a Gene Do?
Getting From a Gene to a Protein
Occurs in 2 Steps:
1.TRANSCRIPTION:
transcribing DNA into RNA
2. TRANSLATION:
translating RNA into an amino
acid sequence (protein)
So What Is RNA?
Transcription
& Translation
Overview
Transcription
Now What?
We need a decoder ring!
In order to
translate DNA
(RNA) you must
first crack the
genetic “code”!
The genetic code
is a triplet code in
which a group of
three bases
(codon) of a
DNA molecule
code for a
particular amino
acid.
Reading the
Genetic Code:
Note that the code is
sometimes
redundant, but
never ambiguous.
It is also (nearly)
universal, allowing
for DNA from one
species to function
in another!
Arabidopsis thaliana C24
wild type (left) and
transformed (GFP; right)
Tobacco plant expressing a
firefly gene (luciferase)
Herman, at right, makes the
human milk protein, lactoferrin,
which is an antibacterial protein
that can be used to treat
immunosuppressed patients and
could be incorporated into infant
formula.
From mRNA
to Protein
Translation: From mRNA to Protein
mRNA is translated by
an interpreter, transfer
RNA (tRNA).
tRNA transfers the
correct amino acid from
the cytoplasm to a
ribosome.
Translation: From mRNA to Protein
The ribosome adds
amino acids to the
growing end of a
polypeptide chain.
Understanding
Transcription and
Translation Allows
You to Predict the
Effect of
Mutations!