Transcript D7-Transcription and Translation
Transcription and Translation: What does a cell (or organism) do with its genes?? The Structure of a DNA Molecule: DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes What Does a Gene Do? Getting From a Gene to a Protein Occurs in 2 Steps: 1.TRANSCRIPTION: transcribing DNA into RNA 2. TRANSLATION: translating RNA into an amino acid sequence (protein) So What Is RNA? Transcription & Translation Overview Transcription Now What? We need a decoder ring! In order to translate DNA (RNA) you must first crack the genetic “code”! The genetic code is a triplet code in which a group of three bases (codon) of a DNA molecule code for a particular amino acid. Reading the Genetic Code: Note that the code is sometimes redundant, but never ambiguous. It is also (nearly) universal, allowing for DNA from one species to function in another! Arabidopsis thaliana C24 wild type (left) and transformed (GFP; right) Tobacco plant expressing a firefly gene (luciferase) Herman, at right, makes the human milk protein, lactoferrin, which is an antibacterial protein that can be used to treat immunosuppressed patients and could be incorporated into infant formula. From mRNA to Protein Translation: From mRNA to Protein mRNA is translated by an interpreter, transfer RNA (tRNA). tRNA transfers the correct amino acid from the cytoplasm to a ribosome. Translation: From mRNA to Protein The ribosome adds amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain. Understanding Transcription and Translation Allows You to Predict the Effect of Mutations!