THE COMPOUNDS OF LIFE
• Using the example of Kool-Aid and water,
identify the solute and solvent.
• T/F Water is polar. This means it has an
uneven distribution of electrons.
• In water, acids release excess _______ ions.
In water, bases release excess _______ ions.
– Draw a pH scale from zero to 14. Label neutral,
acid, and base.
Spider Silk: Stronger than Steel
• The spider and the web
consists of simple organic
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:
Monomers and Polymers
• Complex chains of organic molecules are made
from small units of organic molecules
• Monomers = one unit
• Polymers = two or more connected units
– One lego block
– 10 connected lego blocks
• The process is called polymerization
Carbon – the MOST IMPORTANT atom or
– A carbon atom can form four covalent bonds
– Can stably bind with other carbon atoms
– Able to form single, double, or triple bonds
• Carbon skeletons vary in many ways
Carbon skeletons vary in length.
Skeletons may be unbranched or branched.
Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
Skeletons may be arranged in rings.
Figure 3.1, bottom part
4 MAJOR GROUPS OF MOLECULES
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS
• Carbohydrates are sugars
– Basic Name – saccharides
– MONOMER - Monosaccharide
– POLYMER - Polysaccharides are long polymers
• Bread, candy, sugars
• These molecules typically have a formula that is
a multiple of CH2O
• FUNCTION - carbohydrates provide
energy for an organism
• Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are
polysaccharides that store sugar for later use
• Notice what is the monomer for these examples
Starch granules in
potato tuber cells
in muscle tissue
Cellulose fibrils in
a plant cell wall
• These compounds are composed largely of C
– They are non polar.
– It does not mix with water
• FUNCTION - Lipids main function is
energy storage. Lipids also form
biological membranes in cells
• A lipid molecule = one glycerol + three fatty
• The fatty acids of unsaturated fats (plant oils)
contain double bonds
– They are liquid at room temperature
• Saturated fats (lard) have only single bonds
– They are solid at room temperature
• Proteins FUNCTION:
– cellular structure
• Hair is composed of structural proteins
• Enzymes are a type of protein that regulate
• MONOMER – amino acid. There are only 20
• POLYMER – protein.
• Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA serve as
the blueprints for proteins
• They ultimately control the life of a cell
• Contain C, H, O, N (nitrogen), P (Phosphorous)
MONOMER - nucleotides
– Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar,
phosphate, and nitrogenous base
• The sugar and phosphate form the backbone
for the nucleic acid
• FUNCTION – To store
genetic information in
DNA or RNA
– The sequence of the
what is made
• What makes carbon special?
• What are monomers? What are polymers? Can
you give an example for each organic
• What are the four organic compounds?
• Name a function for each?
Work on handout
– Concept map
– Handout on 2-3
• We will go over it
• SA 2-3 page 48 #1-5
• Finish this chart