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The Nature of Matter Water and solutions Carbohydrates and Lipids Nucleic Acids and Proteins Energy and Reactions 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500 True/False: All matter is made of atoms . What is an atom? What are the three types of particles found in an atom and what is the charge of each? Explain the difference between an atom, element, and compound. What is the difference between ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding AND give an example of each type? True/False: A molecule is a stable group of elements. Define solution and give an example of a solution. Are the hydrogen bonds between water molecules adhesion or cohesion? How do you know? What is the difference between acids and bases? Use pH and hydrogen ions in your answer. Why is water sometimes referred to as the “universal solvent”? What three types of atoms are found in all carbohydrates? Describe the structure of starch. Is it a mono/di/poly saccharide? Are lipids polar or nonpolar? Do they dissolve easily in water? What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? What are two functions of carbohydrates? Do all cells contain nucleic acids? What are the three parts of a nucleotide? What are the building blocks of amino acids? How many different types of building blocks are there? What determines a protein’s shape and function? What do all organic compounds have in common? What are the four main types of organic compounds? True/False: Energy exists in many forms—including light, heat, chemical energy, mechanical energy, and electrical energy- and cannot be converted from one for to another. The starting materials for chemical reactions are called _______. The newly formed substances are called _______. What effect do enzymes have on the rate of chemical reactions? To use a chemical ice pack, a small bag of solution is broken open inside the larger bag of liquid. The two liquids mix and get cold. What type of reaction is taking place inside the ice pack? How do you know? Explain how enzymes speed up chemical reactions.