Chemical Compounds in Cells and in Our Food

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Transcript Chemical Compounds in Cells and in Our Food

Chemical Compounds in Cells
Review of basic chemistry
• Element – any substance that cannot be broken
down into a simpler substance
– Ex – carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen
• Atom – smallest unit of an element
• Compound – two or more elements chemically
combined
– Ex – water, sugar, starch
• Molecule – smallest unit of most compounds
– Ex – H2O, C6H12O6, O2, CO2
Inorganic Compounds
• Does not contain Carbon
– Ex – water (H2O)
Organic Compounds
• Contain Carbon
– Includes:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
• Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes Sulfur
• Found in many foods
• In the cell, used as: -part of cell membranes
-structures of organelles
-muscles in the body
Structure of Proteins
• Made of amino acids
– There are 20 different amino acids in living
things
• These amino acids link together to form a large
molecule of 50-3000 amino acids in one protein.
• Change one aa, change whole protein
Enzymes
• Special kinds of proteins
• Chemicals that speed up chemical reactions in the body
without being used up themselves.
Carbohydrates
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Energy rich
Contain C, H, and O
Simple sugars - glucose
Complex carbohydrates – made up of many
simple sugars attached to each other
– Starch
– Cellulose – make up plant cell walls
Found in cell membranes, other cell parts, and
store energy
Lipids
• Fats, oils, waxes
• Store energy
• Made of C, H, and O
• Contain more energy
than carbs
Nucleic Acids
• DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid
• RNA – ribonucleic acid
• Made of C, H, O, N, and Phosphorus
• Contain instructions for cells to carry
out all their functions.
Water
• Makes up about two thirds of your body.
• Most chemical reactions occur in water.
• Essential for all life.