ExtinctionSC - St. Olaf Pages
Transcript ExtinctionSC - St. Olaf Pages
A. History of biodiversity (and extinction) on earth
B. Where is biodiversity on earth and why?
C. How many species do we have?
D. Extinction today (Mon and Wed)
E. Relationships between ecosystem functioning,
ecosystem services and biodiversity.
• Extinct vs Extant
• Extinct in wild
• Globally vs Locally extinct or extirpated
• Ecologically extinct
• Economically extinct
2. Categorizing species
States “List” Species (MN)
•Endangered-in danger of extinction through
sig. portion of their range.
•Threatened-likely to become endangered in
•Special Concern-problems suspected but not
Federal Govt “Lists” Species (US)
•Threatened=likely to be come endangered in near future
•Candidate species=need to be looked at
A “listed species” means it is either endangered or threatened.
IUCN “Lists” Species (EX and EW)
(International Union for Conservation of Nature)
•Critically Endangered-extreme risk (.5 in 10yrs or 3 generations)
•Endangered-high risk (.2 in 20yrs or 5 generations)
•Vulnerable-likely to become endangered unless the
circumstances threatening it improve (.10 over 100yrs)
Two categories of lower risk
Near Threatened-likely to become endangered
An “Other” category (Data Deficient, Not Evaluated)
The list for US contains species from other countries!!!????
Why List Foreign Species?
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Service to list species
as endangered or threatened regardless of which country the species
lives in. Benefits to the species include prohibitions on certain
activities including import, export, take, commercial activity,
interstate commerce, and foreign commerce. By regulating activities,
the United States ensures that people under the jurisdiction of the
United States do not contribute to the further decline of listed species.
South American Tapir
3. Timing of getting on list
At what point do we put organisms in the
How long do we have to wait…?
The last one spotted alive was in 1921 were
rediscovered when two Indonesian scientists
trapping rats accidentally trapped and killed one
Dwarf cloud rats …seen by a British researcher in 1896
who was given several specimens by local people,
Recently rediscovered on a different mountain (first
location seen was completely logged)-Field Museum
4. What about loss of populations?
Less dramatic are local extinctions or extirpations…
Widespread species …now restricted to a few small
pockets of their former habitat.
Historically found all over east and midwest..
•1790 - Nicrophorus americanus
described from a specimen
collected in "Ame’rique, New
•1974 - Last known mainland
occurrence of the ABB east of
the Mississippi River collected
near Old Man’s Cave in
Hocking Co., Ohio
•1989 - Became first beetle
added to the Endangered
Species List, only known
populations in Block Island,
Rhode Island and Oklahoma
•1991 - ABB recovery plan
•1991 - Captive breeding
program began at the Cincinnati
•1994 - Captive breeding
program began at the Roger
Williams Park Zoo, Rhode
•1994 - ABB reintroduction
program initiated on Nantucket
•1998 - ABB reintroduction
program initiated in Ohio. Wild
ABBs collected from Fort
Chaffee, Arkansas and released
into southeastern Ohio
(Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus)
5. Who has gone extinct?
5. Who has gone extinct?
Diprotodon, a member of the Australian megafauna known as the Giant Wombat (Peter Trusler / Museum