Transcript Document

The Papal Monarchy
Innocent III, the Fourth Lateran
Council, and the Fourth Crusade
Popes and Kings
• Henry II and Becket
– Benefit of Cleregy: trial in
ecclesiastical court
• Source 6.15
– Murder of Becket
• Emperors Frederick I
(Barbarossa) and Frederick
– Incident at besancon
(Source 6.16)
– Barbarossa’s invasion of
northern Italy
• Lombard League, Peace of
– Frederick II’s parentage
• Union of Empire, Sicily
– Pope Innocent accepts
Sicily as a papal fief
Innocent III
• Papal Monarchy:
outcome of reform
– Canon law and extension
of papal bureaucracy
• Source 6.12
– Corruption
• Sources 6.13, 6.14
• Fourth Lateran Council
– Select Canons, 1215
Fourth Crusade: Background
• Saladin’s 1187 Conquest
of Jerusalem (source 6.1)
• Failure of Third Crusade
to recapture city
– Tensions with Byzantium
• Crisis in Byzantine
imperial family
– Deposition of Isaac II
Angelos by brother,
Alexios III
• Contract with Venetians
for transport
– Enrico Dandalo, doge
– Innocent III’s assent, but
ban on attacking Christian
– Ban violated by attack on
Zara: more ships than
• Innocent excommunicated
the crusaders
Fourth Crusade (cont.)
• Alexios IV’s offer (Isaac’s
• Opposition to Alexios’s
– Pay debts, turn over
eastern church to pope if
restored to throne
– Innocent III’s response
was ambiguous
– Alexios III fled city, Isaac
restored; Alexios IV
declared co-emperor at
Crusaders’ insistance
– Money not forthcoming
– Alexios V takes over
• April 13, 1204: conquest
of Constantinople
– Sacking of city (Source
– Latin Empire (1204-1261)