Transcript Document

Europe 1000
Growth of Royal Power
Evolving Traditions
Matrimony Anointing of
the Sick
Europe in 1000
Europe & Middle East 1000
Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades
November 27th in Anno Domini [Year of Our Lord] 1095
Perhaps the greatest irony of the
Crusading period is that Pope Urban II,
the man who cried "Dieu Le Volt : God wills it" ,
the very words that rallied men to take up the
sword in the name of Christendom, died in 1099
before hearing of the success of the First Crusade
to Jerusalem. Urban II was born in 1042 CE and
was crowned Pope in 1088 at the age of 46. We may
never know what was said by the Pope on
November 27th, 1095, as the many accounts of
that speech are varied. More important, however
are the reasons the crusade was called in the first
place. Some possible theories are as follows:
•Urban sought a reunification of the Eastern and Western
•Put an end to the fighting among land owners and
feudal societies in Europe. By redirecting hostilities
towards a common enemy, the Infidels, the Christians
could fight a mutual cause.
•He wanted to make safe travel routes to and from
the near East, the Holy Land, as many pilgrims were
traveling to the area and being killed on route.
•Assert the power of the Roman Catholic Church
Timeline of Crusades
•1095-1096 The Peasants Crusade
•1095-1099 The First Crusade
•1147-1149 The Second Crusade
•1189-1192 The Third Crusade
•1202-1204 The Fourth Crusade
•12?? - The Children’s Crusade
•1218-1221 The Fifth Crusade
•1228-1229 The Sixth Crusade
•1248-1254 The Seventh Crusade
•1270-The Eighth Crusade
•1271-1272 The Last Crusade
Results of the First Crusade!
• Jerusalem was
captured on July 15,
• Almost all inhabitants
killed, their blood
purified the city!
• Death in the name of
Religion! Does it still
happen today?
Massacred Jews graves
at Worms, 6,000 killed!
c. 1096
•Louis VII of France
•Conrad III Holy
Roman Emperor
•This Crusade was in response
to Muslim unification and
taking of the first crusades
lands to the east of Jerusalem
•Both armies failed to take
back any land
•Crusade #2 failed
• Result of the Muslims recapturing
Jerusalem in 1187
• Crusaders fail to retake Jerusalem and all
later attempts will fail as well
• Muslims control Jerusalem for the next
700+ years
Children’s Crusade
•Very sketchy on details!
•Some say 1202 some say 1212
•Children from France and Germany tried
unsuccessfully to travel to the Holy Land,
1,000’s died or simply disappeared.
Other Crusades
• All Following
crusades failed to
regain the Holy land,
but brought
knowledge of the
world outside of
Europe and increased
Other Crusades Cont.
The Fifth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade (1216-1220) was led by the kings of Hungary and Cyprus. Its strength was wasted in Egypt,
and it resulted in nothing
The Sixth Crusade
The Sixth Crusade (1227-1229), headed by Frederick II. of Germany, succeeded in securing from the Saracens the
restoration of Jerusalem, together with several other cities of Palestine.
The Seventh Crusade
The Seventh Crusade (1249-1254) was under the lead of Louis IX. Of France, surnamed the Saint.
The Eighth Crusade
The Eighth Crusade ( 1270 ) was incited by the fresh misfortunes that, towards the close of the thirteenth century,
befell the Christian kingdom in Palestine. The leader of the eighth crusade was King Louis IX of France. King
Louis IX directed his forces against the Moors about Tunis, in North Africa. Here the king died of the plague.
Nothing was effected by this crusade.
The Ninth and Last Crusade
The Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272) was also incited by the misfortunes that, towards the close of the thirteenth
century, befell the Christian kingdom in Palestine. The leader of this crusade was Prince Edward of England,
afterwards King Edward I. The English prince, was, however, more fortunate than the ill-fated King Louis IX.
Edward succeeded in capturing Nazareth, and in compelling the sultan of Egypt to agree to a treaty favorable to
the Christians in the Last Crusade . With this event the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end (1291). The
second great combat between Mohammedanism and Christianity was over, and "silence reigned along the shore
that had so long resounded with the world's debate."
Europe in 1000
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