Age of Exploration - Ste. Genevieve R

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Transcript Age of Exploration - Ste. Genevieve R

Age of Exploration
Chapter 14 and Chapter 15
• Trade
– spices, silks, jade
– Moluccas- island chain known as the spice
• Curiosity
• Religion
• Prince Henry the Navigator
– Conversions, Muslim Riches, Asia
– Recruitment: Cartographers, sailors, ship builders,
– Dies in 1460
• Bartholomeu Dias
– rounded Cape of Good Hope in 1488
• Vasco da Gama
Voyage to Calicut in India
Returns with minimal goods (300% profit)
Second Voyage to Calicut to force a treaty and leave
Christopher Columbus
• Believed he could sail west and reach the
East Indies
– Portugal would not sponsor him
– Ferdinand and Isabella did though
• Spanish Inquisition forces Jews and many wealthy
people out; seeking riches and prestige
– First Voyage: Aug. 3, 1492  Nina, Pinta, and
Santa Maria
– Reach land Oct. 12
– Total of 4 voyages
Exploratory Conflict
• Line of Demarcation: split the globe
– Pope Alexander VI
– Spain gets west, Portugal gets East
– Treaty of Tordesillas
Other Early Explorers
• Amerigo Vespucci (Itl)
– Journals voyage to Brazil
• Martin Waldseemuller
– Used Vespucci’s journals to map the
• Vasco Nunez de Balboa(Spain)
– Helped by Indians to get through Panama
Ferdinand Magellan
From Portugal
Set out with 5 ships from Spain
Reached S. Am. and explored every bay
Finally reaches southern tip  Strait of Magellan
– Brutal Storms, Winds, and Tides
– Renames South Sea Pacific
• Crew wanted to return, Magellan wanted to
– 3 wks to spice islands, took 4 months
• Magellan is killed at the Philippines
• Sept. 8, 1522  return with 1 ship and 18 sailors
• 1st to Circumnavigate
Exploration of Africa
• Portugal sets up minor establishments
along African Coast
– Wish to cut out Middle men
– African goods: gold, ivory, hides, slaves
– Took over Mambasa and Malindi
– Expelled Arabs
African Slave Trade
• slavery has been around for thousands of
• Euro. Used slave labor for plantations
• Plantation: large estates run by an owner
or an owner’s overseer
• slave raids by rulers and “companies”
African Resistance
• Affonso I, ruled Kongo
– Had been tortured by Port. Missionaries
– He asked Portugal to help develop Kongo
– Results in overwhelming slave trade
– Banned in some areas
African Civilizations
• Asante Kingdom (Ghana)
– Osei Tutu-military leader that took over
– United area by claiming to be ruler through power of
– Created government based on merit
– Monopolies on gold and slave trade
– Played Europeans against each other
• Oyo Empire
– Forest kingdom composed of Yoruba people
– Built army from slavery wealth
European Expansion
• British, Dutch, and French take over as
Portugal declines
• Establish colonies
• Dutch build Cape Town at tip of Africa
– First permanent European settlement
– Boers settle around the area
– Locals are killed off due to elitist views
Europe in Asia
• Portuguese had a superior navy with better
• Alfonso de Albuquerque
– Sailed to Asia
• Mughal Empire – Muslim controlled lands in
central Asia
• Trading Outposts
– 1510- Portuguese take Goa
– Becomes a major mil./commercial base
– 1511- Portugal takes Malacca = the Muslim city in
East Indies
• Outposts: distant areas under a country’s
Dutch Exploration
• 1599- Dutch fleet returns successfully from
• Set up Cape Town
• Dutch East India Company – group of
wealthy Dutch merchants
– had full sovereign powers
• 1641- Dutch take Malacca
• Use their military to create a monopoly on
trade in the region
Spanish Exploration
• Took over the Philippines
• Conquered and named after Phillip II
Mughal India
• Europeans allowed building forts
• Empire shatters by corruption and power
• European companies raise armies
• Eypoys – Indian troops
East Asian Exploration
Ming China
• Europeans have inferior products
– Chinese demand silver and gold
• Macao (Guangzhou)
– Portuguese trading post in China
• Rules:
– Trade only under supervision
– Leave at the end of the trade season
Manchu Conquest
• Manchu – Manchurians from NW China
• Qing (ching) Dynasty
– Adopted Confucianism
• 2 rulers (1 Manchu/ 1 Chinese)
• Local governments were maintained
• Army station to ensure loyalty
Manchu Rulers
• Kangxi
– Expanded empire, promoted Chinese culture
• Qianlong
– Kangxi’s grandson
– Created largest Chinese empire in history
– Retired after 60 years for grandfather’s sake
Lord Macartney
• Diplomat
• Brought sample products (Strike 1)
• Refusal to bow meeting the emperor
(Strike 2)
• Discussions of the natural superiority of
the English (Strike 3)
• Welcomed westerners at first
• Use of European weapons may have
stabilized the country
• Japanese welcome Christianity and the
printing press
• Sources of fear:
– Knew of Spanish take-over of Philippines
– Christian allegiance
Japan cont.
• Missionaries kicked out
• Japanese Christians persecuted and killed
• Complete Isolation
– Outlawed travel, large ship building
– Allowed 1-2 Dutch ships in Nagasaki per year
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