History of Healthcare

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Transcript History of Healthcare

History of Health Care
Students will:
Identify medical/health care milestones that
have led to advances in health care.
Predict where and how factors such as cost,
managed care, technology, and aging
population, access to care, alternative
therapies, and lifestyle behavior may affect
various health delivery system models.
Adopted from Butler County Area Technical College, Kentucky
4000 BC – 3000 BC Primitive Times
Illness and diseases were a punishment
from the Gods
Tribal witch doctors treated illness with
Herbs and plants used as medicines
(morphine and digitalis)
Trepanation or trephining (surgically
removig a piece of bone from the skull)
Average life span was 20 years
Adopted from BCATC
3000 BC – 300 BC
Ancient Egyptians
Physicians were priests
 Bloodletting or leeches used as
medical treatment
 Average life span was 20-30 years
Adopted from BCATC
1700 BC – AD 220
Ancient Chinese
Believed in the need to treat the whole
body by curing the spirit and nourishing
the body
Recorded a pharmacopoeia of medications
based mainly on the use of herbs
Used therapies such as acupuncture
Began to search for medical reasons for
Average life span was 20-30 years
Adopted from BCATC
1200 BC –200 BC
Ancient Greeks
First to observe the human body and the
effects of disease – led to modern medical
Believed illness is a result of natural causes
Used therapies such as massage, art
therapy, and herbal treatment
Stressed diet and exercise as ways to
prevent disease
Average life span was 25-35 years
Adopted from BCATC
753 BC – AD 410
Ancient Romans
First to organize medical care by providing
care for injured soldiers
Later hospitals were religious and charitable
institutions in monasteries and convents
First public health and sanitation systems by
building sewers and aqueducts
Galen established belief that the body was
regulated by four body humors; blood,
phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile
Life span was 25-35 years
Adopted from BCATC
AD 400 – AD 800
Dark Ages
Emphasis on saving the soul and
study of medicine was prohibited
 Prayer and divine intervention were
used to treat illness & disease
 Monks and priests provided custodial
care for sill people
 Medications were mainly herbal
 Average life span was 20-30 years
Adopted from BCATC
AD 800 – AD 1400
Middle Ages
Renewed interest in medical practices of
Greek and Romans
Bubonic Plague killed 75% of population in
Europe and Asia
Major diseases included smallpox,
diptheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, the plaque,
and malaria
Arabs began requiring physicians pass
examinations and obtain licenses
Average life span was 20-35 years
AD 1350 – AD 1650
Dissection of body led to increased
understanding of anatomy and
 Invention of printing press allowed
medical knowledge to be shared
 First anatomy book was published by
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
 Average life span was 30-40 years
Adopted from BCATC
16th and 17th Centuries
Cause of disease still not known – many
people died from infections
Invention of the microscope allowed
physicians to see disease-causing
Apothecaries (early pharmicists) made,
prescribed, and sold medications
Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), a French
surgeon, known as the Father of Modern
Surgery established use of ligatures to stop
Average life span 35-45 years
Adopted from BCATC
18th Century
Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736)
created the first mercury
 John Hunter (1728-1793), established
scientific surgical procedures and
introduced tube feeding
 Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals
 Average life span 40-50 years
Adopted from BCATC
19th Century
Rapid advancements due to discoveries of
microorganisms, anesthesia, and
Infection control developed once
microorganisms were associated with
Formal training for nurses began
Women became active participants in
health care
Average life span 40-60 years
20th Century
Increased knowledge about the role of blood in
the body
ABO blood groups discovered
Found out how white blood cells protect against
New medications were developed
Insulin discovered and used to treat diabetes
Antibiotics developed to fight infections
Vaccines were developed
New machines developed
Kidney Dialysis Machine
Heart Lung Machine
Surgical and diagnostic techniques developed to cure
once fatal conditions
Adopted from BCATC
20th Century (continued)
Organ Transplants
Test tube babies
Implanted first artificial heart
Health Care Plans developed to help pay
the cost of care
Medicare and Medicaid marked the entry of
the federal government into the health
care arena
HMOs provided an alternative to private
Hospice organized
Adopted from BCATC
21st Century
The first totally implantable artificial heart
was placed in a patient in Louisville, Ky. In
The threat of bioterrorism lead to smallpox
vaccination of the military and first
responders in 2002
The Netherlands became the first country
in the world to legalize euthanasia in 2002
The Human Genome Project to identify all
of the approximately 20,000 to 25,000
genes in the human
Adopted from BCATC
21st Century
Stem cells were used in the treatments of disease
early in the 2000’s and lead to increased research
in the treatment of cancer and other diseases
President George W. Bush approved federal
funding for research using only existing lines of
embryonic stem cells in 2001
Advanced Cell Technology announced it cloned a
human embryo in 2001 but the embryo did not
The U.S. FDA approved the use of the abortion pill
RU-486 IN 200
Adopted from BCATC
21st Century
The standards for Privacy of Individually
Identifiable Health Information, required
under the Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (HIPPA) of 1996, went
into effect in 2003
The Medicare Prescription Drug
Improvement and Modernization Act was
passed in 2003
Vaccinations for cervical cancer and herpes
zoster (shingles) in 2006
Adopted from BCATC
Potential for 21st Century
Cures for AIDS, cancer, and heart
 Genetic manipulation to prevent
inherited disease
 Nerves in the brain and spinal cord
are regenerated to prevent paralysis
 Antibiotics are developed that do not
allow pathogens to develop resistance
 Average life span 90-100 years
Adopted from BCATC
(460 – 377 BC)
Greek physician known as the “Father
of Medicine
 Authored code of conduct for doctors
known as the “Hippocratic Oath” that
is the basis of medical practice today
 Believed illness was not caused
by evil spirits and stressed
importance of good diet, fresh
air, cleanliness, and exercise
Adopted from BCATC
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Invented the microscope lens
that allowed visualization of
 Scraped his teeth
and observed the
bacteria that
causes tooth
Adopted from BCATC
Benjamin Franklin
Invented bifocals
Found that colds could
be passed from person
to person
Adopted from BCATC
Ephraim McDowell (1771 -1 1830)
Surgeon from Danville, Ky.
 Performed the first ovariotomy (surgical removal of the ovary) - to
remove a 22 pound tumor
Adopted from BCATC
Edward Jenner
Developed a vaccination for smallpox
in 1796
Adopted from BCATC
Rene Laennec
Invented the stethoscope in 1819
First stethoscope was made of wood
Adopted from BCATC
Elizabeth Blackwell
First female physician in the United
States in 1849
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
Known as the “Founder of
Modern Nursing”
Established efficient and
sanitary nursing units during
the Crimean War in 1854
Invented the call bell system
and use of dumbwaiters to
deliver meals
Begin the professional
education of nurses
Adopted from BCATC
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Known as the “Father of Microbiology”
His germ theory proved that microorganisms
cause disease
Proved that heat can be used
to destroy germs through a
process called pasteurization
Created a vaccine for rabies in
Founded the basic rules for
Adopted from BCATC
Joseph Lister (1827-1912)
Used carbolic acid on wounds to kill
 First doctor to use an antiseptic
during surgery
Adopted from BCATC
Clara Barton (1821-1912)
Volunteer nurse for wounded soldiers during the
Civil War
After Civil War, established a bureau of records
to search for missing men
Campaigned for the USA to sign
the Treaty of Geneva, which
provided relief for sick and
wounded soldiers
Formed American Red Cross
in 1881 and served as its first
Adopted from BCATC
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
Developed the culture plate method to
identify pathogens
 Isolated the bacterium
that causes tuberculosis
Adopted from BCATC
Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923)
(X-rays) in 1895
 Let doctors see
inside the body
 X-rayed wife’s
Adopoted from BCATC
Sigmund Freud (1836-1939)
Discovered the conscious
and unconscious part of
the mind
 His studies were the
basis for psychology and
Adopted from BCATC
Sir Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin in 1928 which is
considered one of the most
discoveries of
the twentieth
Adopted from BCATC
Jonas Salk (1914-1995)
Albert Sabin (1906 – 1993)
Discovered polio vaccine
 Saved many people from
this virus that paralyzed
thousands of adults and
children each year.
Adopted from BCATC
Francis Crick (1916 – 2004)
James Watson (1928 - )
Described the structure of DNA and how it
carries genetic information in 1953
 Built a three-dimensional
model of the molecules
of DNA
 Shared the Noble Prize
in 1962
Adopted from BCATC
Christian Barnard
(1922 – 2001)
Performed first successful heart
transplant in 1968
Adopted from BCATC
Robert Jarvik
Creator of the first artificial heart
On December 2, 1982, it was
implanted into Barney Clark, who
lived for the next 112 days
The second patient, William
Schroeder, lived for 620 days
Adopted from BCATC
Ben Carson (1951 -
Famous for his surgeries to separate
Siamese twins
 Currently Director of
Pediatric Neurosurgery
at John Hopkins
 He has refined
hemispherectomy, a
surgery on the brain
to stop seizures
Adopted from BCATC
Current Trends in
Health Care
Adopted from Butler
County Area Technical
Cost Containment
Cost of health care began rising due to:
Technological advances
Aging population
Health-related lawsuits
Cost Containment measures include:
Diagnostic related groups (DRG)
Combination of services
Outpatient services
Mass or bulk purchasing
Early intervention and preventive services
Health care facilities specialized to
Home health care
 Hospice care
 Geriatric care
 Types
of facilities
 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
Emphasis on promoting wellness of
the whole individual:
Physical wellness
 Emotional wellness
 Social wellness
 Mental and intellectual wellness
 Spiritual Wellness
 Holistic Health
Alternative and Complementary
Methods of Health Care
Chinese medicine practitioners
 Chiropractors
 Homeopaths
 Hypnotists
 Naturopaths
National Health Care Plan
Has become a leading topic of debate
due to the increasing number of
uninsured Americans
Education and preparation for a
potential pandemic
Due to the high rate international travel,
the possibility for a devastating
pandemic has increased