The Nation Grows - MissDWorldofSocialStudies

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Transcript The Nation Grows - MissDWorldofSocialStudies

US History: 11/5 and 6 TOTD
Absolute value- the distance between zero and
representing a real number on the number line
Bell ringer 11/5
Who is our third President?
What is he known for?
US History 11/7
• Bell ringer: What President authorized the
Louisiana Purchase? Who was living in the
Louisiana Purchase as it was explored by white
men? Who are the most famous explorers of the
Louisiana Purchase? What areas of the US was
the Louisiana Purchase in?
• TOTD: Bisect, Parallel Lines, Binomial, Absolute
value. Write the definition of each and show to
me in order to leave the class when the bell
Bell ringer 11/10 and TOTD
• Describe Jefferson’s and Livingston’s
diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana
Purchase from France . (Use your notes)
• TOTD- formula is an expression used to
calculate a desired result
• Who has an AO Pass? I am missing one.
• What does Veteran's Day celebrate? What is the
former name of Veteran's Day? What is an
armistice? Do you know a veteran? What do you
owe to our veterans?
and 13
• Get out notes so we can finish and do the
review for the ……
• Test on Friday
• TOTD- Coefficient- the number before the
variable in an expression
• Clear your desks , get out a sheet of paper and a pen
and prepare to take your test. Draw a line thru #15 on
your paper as it did not wholly print out
• After the test, make sure you hand in your notes and
• Get an article on the Louisiana Purchase , read it,
answer the questions on paper, and place it in your
reading folder
• Paper is due this coming Tuesday
• TOTD- write all your words and their definitions from
this past week
The Nation
SSUSH 6 The student will analyze the nature
of territorial and population growth, and
its impact in the early decades of the new
a. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in
obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from
France and the territory’s exploration by
Lewis and Clark.
c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812
and the war’s significance on the
development of a national identity.
Essential Questions:
 What geographic, democratic, political and
economic changes affected America’s
• How did the concept of democracy change in
America during the early days of the union?
• How did the territorial expansion of America’s
early days affect the nation?
• How did the War of 1812 affect the new nation?
• Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark,
Sacagawea, war of 1812, Aaron Burr,
Impressment, Embargo Act of 1807, NonIntercourse Act, Tecumseh, Tippicanoe,
Harrison, Tyler, war hawks, Treaty of
Ghent, Rush-Bagott Agreement,
Louisiana Purchase
• Spanish territory secured
by France.
– U.S. concerned because
of French power.
• President Jefferson wants
western settlers to remain
loyal to U.S.
• Robert Livingston
– Sent to France to buy
New Orleans.
– Offers $10 million.
• Napoleon sells Louisiana
for $15 million.
– Needs money to go to
war in Europe.
Louisiana Purchase
• “…an act beyond the
– Federalist reaction to the
– Constitution does not
specify buying territory
from foreign nations.
– Fear that eastern
commercial interests
would be hurt.
• But…. in 1803- Louisiana
becomes a territory of the
Lewis and Clark
• Jefferson sends to explore
– Map and explore.
• May 14, 1804- leave St.
• Spend winter w/ Mandan
– Sacagawea joins as
guide and interpreter.
• September 23, 1806return to St. Louis.
Zebulon Pike
• Explores the Spanish
lands of Southwestern
– Pikes Peak.
Thomas Jefferson
Asks Congress to repeal 3
1. Naturalization Act.
2. Excise tax on whiskey.
3. Judiciary Act of 1801- no
more “midnight judges.”
Asks for reduction in spending
on army and navy so have
more money to operate govt.
Congress says “No": Forced to
“live with” Hamilton’s ideas.
Bank of the United States.
Federal govt. assuming state
Election of 1804
• Republicans choose
Jefferson as
• Nominate George
Clinton for VP.
– Instead of Aaron
Burr who was the
• Win all the states
except Delaware and
Aaron Burr
• Burr runs for governor
of New York.
– Federalists support.
• Alexander Hamilton
urges Federalists to
not vote for Burr.
• Burr loses the
Duel Between Burr and
• July 11, 1804- Burr
challenges Hamilton
to a duel.
Burr is still the
• Hamilton is shot and
• Burr goes into exile.
1. Persuades westerners to
leave the Union and set
up own nation.
2. Tries to conquer Mexico.
– Secretly allies with
General James Wilkinson
– Commander of U.S.
– Gives Burr information
about the West.
– Jefferson discovers the
plot by an anonymous
• Burr charged with
– Could not be tried
because Constitution
required 2 witnesses.
• Burr tries to invade New
– Wilkinson leaks the
scheme– Burr arrested.
• Tried before John
– Marshall releases Burr
because of hatred of
Jefferson- tries to
embarrass him.
The End of Aaron Burr
• Burr travels to France
to get support from
– Ordered out of the
• Returns to America in
1812 to New Yorkpenniless.
• Dies on September 14,
– The same day his
divorce his finalized.
Orders in Council
• America is a source of
supplies for both Britain
and France.
• Britain vows to destroy
French trade w/ America.
• Orders in Council
– 1807 British orders.
– Forbade American
vessels to enter any
ports in the world under
Napoleon’s control.
– Napoleon gets mad
Napoleon’s Orders
• Napoleon responds
w/ a blockade of
• Napoleon’s Orders
– Forbade all nations
to trade w/ Britain.
– Seize all ships that
entered French
ports that had
stopped in British
• Jefferson says both
Orders a violation of
the “freedom of the
• French and British
ships “blockade run”
each other.
• British policy of
seizing American
• Chesapeake
– 1807
– American frigate
seized by Britain.
– Americans demand
Embargo Act of 1807
• Jefferson’s answer to war
with Britain.
• Written by Secretary of
State James Madison.
• Opposed by Secretary of
the Treasury Albert
• Forbade American vessels
to trade w/ any foreign
• Merchants and farmers
unable to sell crops to
foreign buyers.
– Encourages smuggling.
• March 1, 1809- Congress
repeals the Act.
– The same day Jefferson
leaves office.
Election of 1808
• Jefferson chooses not
to run for a 3rd term.
• James Madison
– Republican
– Jefferson’s
Secretary of State.
– Chooses George
Clinton to be his VP.
• Clinton will die in
• Madison wins.
– No competition
Madison’s Dilemma
• Jefferson had refused
to deal with issues
concerning Britain or
• Madison faced with 3
possible solutions:
1. Prolong the failed
2. Submit to British
policy of
3. Resist and go to war.
Non-Intercourse Act
• 1809
• Forbade American
merchants to do
business w/ Great
Britain or France.
• Trade w/ other nations
The Madison Cabinet
• William Eustis
– Secretary of War
– Never served in Army
• Paul Hamilton
– Secretary of Navy
– Alcoholic
• Albert Gallatin
– Secretary of Treasury
– Dislikes Madison but
respects him.
• Robert Smith
– Secretary of State
– Considered incompetent.
• James Wilkinson
– Placed in charge of the
regular army.
– Scandal plagued.
War of 1812
Macon’s Bill
• June, 1809
– Britain announces it will
lift the Orders in Council.
– America lifts the NonIntercourse act.
• August, 1809
– Britain refuses to lift the
– U.S. Congress refuses to
renew the NonIntercourse Act.
• Rep. Nathaniel Macon
– Passes a bill that
resumes trade with
Britain or France,
whichever recognized
American neutrality.
• Napoleon announces that
France would no longer
interfere w/ America.
– No intention of keeping
– Ploy to get America to
side against Britain.
“War Hawks”
• Congress hesitant to go to
war because of the cost.
• Western Congressmen
who “whipped up” the
war spirit in Congress.
• Henry Clay
• John Calhoun
• Felix Grundy
• William Giles
– Calls for the raising of
25,000 troops.
• Leader of the Shawnee
tribe with his brother, The
• Rallies scattered tribes to
stop selling land to the
• Asks white settlers to leave
people alone.
• Concerns arise over
Canadian alliance w/ the
– British back fur traders
who supply the Indians w/
Battle of Tippecanoe
• November, 1811
• “War Hawks” demand
that something be done
about Tecumseh and the
• Gen. William Henry
Harrison leads troops to
Tippecanoe River. and
fights the Shawnee
• Not a decisive victory,
but manages to drive
Indians back.
Declaration of War
Britain decides to avoid
war with America by
removing Orders in
Council on June 16.
June 18, 1812- Madison asks
Congress to declare war on
Great Britain.
Five reasons
1. Impressment
2. Blockade of American
ships leaving.
3. Blockade of ships
4. Disruption of neutral
5. Incitement of Indian
hostilities in the West.
War Preparations
• U.S. not prepared
• Small navy
• Few soldiers
– Problems between
the volunteer militia
and the regular
• No single commander
of the armed forces.
Armed Forces
• William Hull
– Commander of 2000 man army
in Detroit.
– Ordered to recruit a 1200 man
militia to invade the city.
– Suffers a stroke.
• Beat back by Tecumseh and
the Canadian Army.
• August 16 surrenders Detroit.
– Could not decide whether to
use a dirty towel or a clean
sheet as the white flag.
Success at Sea
• USS Constitution
– Captain Isaac Hull
– Encounters 3 British
ships w/ no winds.
– Oar boats pull the
ships for 2 days and
• USS United States
– Captain Stephan
– Captures a British
ship and converts it to
an American war ship.
Conquest of Canada
• Chief military goal of the
United States.
– Taking it would cripple
British trade for lumber.
– Essential to take it in the
first 6 months of the war.
• Troops commanded by
Henry Dearborn invade
Canada via New York in
November, 1812.
– Regular army
accidentally fires upon
– Retreats back to New
Election of 1812
• Republicans
– James Madison
– Fears losing due to
disastrous war beginnings.
• Federalists
– DeWitt Clinton
– Opposes war in the East,
but supports it in the West.
• Successes at sea bolsters
• New England opposition to
the war allows for
Federalist gains in
• Madison wins re-election.
Military Setbacks
• British blockade
American ships at ports.
• Dearborn replaced by
Gen. Winfield Scott.
– Invades Canada via
Niagara, but are pushed
back by the Canadians
and the British.
• President Madison
nearly dies from a fever.
Naval Successes
in the Great Lakes area
• Whoever controlled the Great
Lakes- controlled the West.
– 1813- Lake Erie is taken by
• Commodore Perry
• Ensures British cannot invade
from Canada via the Great
Lakes. Perry takes troops
across Lake Erie.
• Harrison defeats the British
and Indian allies.
• Tecumseh is killed
Military Failures
in The Great Lakes Area
• James Wilkinson
– November, 1813- attacks
– Suffers a fever that can
only be treated with
large doses of alcohol
and opium.
– Generals get into a fighteach have each other
– Invasion fails.
• December, 1813- British
successfully invade New
General James
General John
Military Reforms
• New Generals placed
in command of the
regular army and
• Gen. Winfield Scott
• Gen. George Izard
• Gen. Jacob Brown
• Institute training
camps and discipline.
Battle of Ft. McHenry
• September, 1814
• British troops open
fire on Ft. McHenry in
Chesapeake Bay.
• Battle is observed by
Francis Scott Key.
– He writes down the
– Birth of “The Star
Spangled Banner.”
Washington Burned
• British troops march
on Washington, DC.
• Burn the Capitol
Building and the
White House.
• President and Mrs.
Madison escape.
• British withdraw from
the city.
Surrender of
Battle of
America retakes
the Great Lakes
invades Canada
Scott invades
Battle of Thames
Burning of
Washington, DC
British invasion of
New York
Battle of New
A Divided Country
• Federalist merchants
against the war.
– War would ruin what was
left of shipping.
– Annexation of Canada
and Florida would give
more land to farmers.
• New England militias
refuse to invade Canada.
• Congress considers a
compulsory draft.
– Daniel Webster of
Massachusetts declares,
“Unconstitutional !!”
• “Mr. Madison’s War”
– Federalists nickname for
War of 1812.
Treaty of Ghent
• Madison sends peace
delegation to Ghent,
Belgium in January, 1814.
• British demands:
– Northwest Territory
returned to the Indians.
– New York and New
England be given to
• British Foreign Secretary
Lord Castlereagh
– Also involved at the
Congress of Vienna.
– Orders a softening of the
demands to avoid further
Treaty of Ghent
• Signed on Christmas Eve,
• Ensured the release of all
prisoners of war.
• Established a commission
to settle boundary
disputes between the U.S.
and Canada.
• Never dealt with
impressment or
transference of land.
– What the War was
“supposedly” fought
Battle of New Orleans
December, 1814
General Andrew Jackson
Defeats the British.
War is fought after the
peace treaty had already
been signed.
• War is officially over.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
• 1817
• U.S. and Canada
agree to maintain
minimal vessels for
policing on the Great
• Border between
Canada and the USA
is agreed upon in the
Great Lakes area
Results of the War of 1812
• United States and
Britain agree to a
stalemate. Nobody
• United States becomes
independent of Europe.
• United States gains
respect with its military
• United States would
have little to do with
European affairs for
the next 100 years.
of the War
of 1812
The End